How to format your references using the Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polak T. Help others--and help your career. Science. 2015;350(6257):246.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fischbach MA, Walsh CT. Biochemistry. Directing biosynthesis. Science. 2006;314(5799):603-605.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huber D, Veinante P, Stoop R. Vasopressin and oxytocin excite distinct neuronal populations in the central amygdala. Science. 2005;308(5719):245-248.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Azzam R, Chen SL, Shou W, et al. Phosphorylation by cyclin B-Cdk underlies release of mitotic exit activator Cdc14 from the nucleolus. Science. 2004;305(5683):516-519.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burd B. Java® For Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Filipe J, Fred A, Sharp B, eds. Agents and Artificial Intelligence: Second International Conference, ICAART 2010, Valencia, Spain, January 22-24, 2010. Revised Selected Papers. Vol 129. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Kawecki K, Seredyński F, Pilski M. Controlling Spam: Immunity-based Approach. In: Kłopotek MA, Wierzchoń ST, Trojanowski K, eds. Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining: Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM’06 Conference Held in Ustrón, Poland, June 19-22, 2006. Advances in Soft Computing. Springer; 2006:31-40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Images Of Pluto’s Moon Charon Show Huge Fractures And Hints Of Icy ‘Lava Flows.’ IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Cellular Service Competition. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore DL. The Challenge Program: A quantitative analysis of strategies designed to eliminate the achievement gap. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic B. Federal Judge Halts Legal Challenges in Detroit Bankruptcy Case. New York Times. July 25, 2013:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology
ISSN (print)0090-4295

Other styles