How to format your references using the Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dorn GW 2nd. Medicine. Refugee receptors switch sides. Science. 2010;327(5973):1586-1587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen JC, Hobbs HH. Genetics. Simple genetics for a complex disease. Science. 2013;340(6133):689-690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marty B, Dewonck S, France-Lanord C. Geochemical evidence for efficient aquifer isolation over geological timeframes. Nature. 2003;425(6953):55-58.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Coquel F, Silva MJ, Técher H, et al. SAMHD1 acts at stalled replication forks to prevent interferon induction. Nature. 2018;557(7703):57-61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boddy R, Smith G. Effective Experimentation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Connor JJ. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering. 2nd ed. 2016. (Faraji S, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Chesneaux JM, Jézéquel F, Lamotte JL. Stochastic arithmetic and verification of mathematical models. In: Baveye PC, Laba M, Mysiak J, eds. Uncertainties in Environmental Modelling and Consequences for Policy Making. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands; 2009:101-125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Researchers Use Genetic Switch To Reverse Leukemia In Mice. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Contemplated Legislation To Provide Telecommunications for the Deaf. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez SN. Analysis of the Impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act on California’s Children: A Report Card on the CalWORKs Program. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Alani H. Man Who Pushed Passenger Who Died on Subway Tracks Is Acquitted. New York Times. July 17, 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology
ISSN (print)0090-4295

Other styles