How to format your references using the Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heisenberg M. Is free will an illusion? Nature. 2009;459(7244):164-165.
A journal article with 2 authors
England PC, Katz RF. Global systematics of arc volcano position. Nature. 2010;468(7325):E6-7; discussion E7-8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang J, Timusk T, Gu GD. High-transition-temperature superconductivity in the absence of the magnetic-resonance mode. Nature. 2004;427(6976):714-717.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baum JK, Myers RA, Kehler DG, Worm B, Harley SJ, Doherty PA. Collapse and conservation of shark populations in the Northwest Atlantic. Science. 2003;299(5605):389-392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Firth-Cozens J, Harrison J. How to Survive in Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Lakshmikantham V. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems. 2nd ed. 2015. (Leela S, Martynyuk AA, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Myrbostad E, Venås K. Alloying by Injection of Mg in an Al-Melt. In: Grandfield JF, Eskin DG, eds. Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 3 Cast Shop for Aluminum Production. Springer International Publishing; 2016:28-32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology.

Blog post
Carpineti C. Incredible Video Shows Onlookers Fleeing As Mount Etna Explodes Into Life. IFLScience. Published March 17, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions May Help Improve Implementation and Evaluation of Supplemental Educational Services. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shackelford V. Mary’s Mandala Story: Images of Chaos in Mandala Psychology. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J, Blinder A. Houston Faces Urgent Task: Moving Mountains of Storm Debris. New York Times. September 6, 2017:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology
ISSN (print)0090-4295

Other styles