How to format your references using the Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mandavilli A. The coming epidemic. Nature. 2005;436(7050):496-498.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang Z, Zhao Y. MATERIALS SCIENCE: High-Pressure Microscopy. Science. 2006;312(5777):1149-1150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coumou D, Lehmann J, Beckmann J. Climate change. The weakening summer circulation in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Science. 2015;348(6232):324-327.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Uehara T, Nakamura T, Yao D, et al. S-nitrosylated protein-disulphide isomerase links protein misfolding to neurodegeneration. Nature. 2006;441(7092):513-517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips JJ, Brantley W, Phillips PP. Project Management ROI. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Lehavi A, ed. Private Communities and Urban Governance: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Stastny J, Skorpil V. Analysis of Algorithms for Radial Basis Function Neural Network. In: Bestak R, Simak B, Kozlowska E, eds. Personal Wireless Communications: The 12th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2007), Prague, Czech Republic, September 2007. IFIP — The International Federation for Information Processing. Springer US; 2007:54-62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urology.

Blog post
Fang J. Enzyme Modification Means Roundworms Live Twice As Long. IFLScience. Published July 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Financial Aid Systems: Absence of Guiding Architecture Reduces Efficiency, Ease of Use. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldstein TW. Writing in Red: The East German Writers Union and the Role of Literary Intellectuals in the German Democratic Republic, 1971-90. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Call to the Bullpen Crackles With a Last Laugh. New York Times. October 4, 2010:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrology
ISSN (print)0090-4295

Other styles