How to format your references using the Urban Habitats citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Habitats. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schlamminger, S. 2014. Fundamental constants: a cool way to measure big G. Nature 510(7506): 478–480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Z. L. and J. Song. 2006. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312(5771): 242–246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kingon, A. I., J. P. Maria and S. K. Streiffer. 2000. Alternative dielectrics to silicon dioxide for memory and logic devices. Nature 406(6799): 1032–1038.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Galloway, J. N. et al. 2008. Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320(5878): 889–892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazzi, B. 2013. Treasury Finance and Development Banking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kotenko, I. and V. Skormin eds. 2012. Computer Network Security: 6th International Conference on Mathematical Methods, Models and Architectures for Computer Network Security, MMM-ACNS 2012, St. Petersburg, Russia, October 17-19, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Audière, S. et al. 2010. Measurement of the Skin-Liver Capsule Distance on Ultrasound RF Data for 1D Transient Elastography. Pp. 34–41 in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2010: 13th International Conference, Beijing, China, September 20-24, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. T. Jiang et al. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Habitats.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. The Little-Known History Of Secrecy And Censorship In Wake Of Atomic Bombings. IFLScience. Retreived October 30, 2018, from the IFLScience Website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Biotechnology: Analysis of Federally Funded Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shetter, R. M. 2012. Assaulting the littorals: The development and evolution of a dedicated American amphibious assault force. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. 2015. From ‘Rocket Girl’ to Karaoke Superstar. New York Times: MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schlamminger 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Schlamminger 2014; Wang and Song 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Song 2006)
  • Three authors: (Kingon, Maria and Streiffer 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Galloway et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Habitats
ISSN (online)1541-7115

Other styles