How to format your references using the Urban Habitats citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Habitats. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sreenivasan, S. 2013. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords. Scientific reports 3: 2758.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gano, S. and R. Kinzler. 2011. SPORE series winner. Bringing the museum into the classroom. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331(6020): 1028–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Micol-Ponce, R., V. Aguilera and M. R. Ponce. 2014. A genetic screen for suppressors of a hypomorphic allele of Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE1. Scientific reports 4: 5533.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kayed, R. et al. 2003. Common structure of soluble amyloid oligomers implies common mechanism of pathogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300(5618): 486–489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic, S. 2005. Advanced Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
García Márquez, F. P. and B. Lev eds. 2015. Advanced Business Analytics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
McNeeley, M. F., M. Itani and C. A. Rohrmann. 2015. Diagnostic Fluoroscopy for Imaging Crohn’s Disease. Pp. 65–74 in Crohn’s Disease: Basic Principles, eds. A. Fichera and M. K. Krane. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Habitats.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Trials A Step Forward For Medicinal Cannabis But What Comes Next? IFLScience. Retreived October 30, 2018, from the IFLScience Website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. [Response to Request for Views on Application of P.L. 99-177 to Teacher Loan Cancellations]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, E. J. 2013. Older Americans Act of 1965, Title III: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. 2012. Crushed by Promises. New York Times: B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sreenivasan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sreenivasan 2013; Gano and Kinzler 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gano and Kinzler 2011)
  • Three authors: (Micol-Ponce, Aguilera and Ponce 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kayed et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Habitats
ISSN (online)1541-7115

Other styles