How to format your references using the Urban Habitats citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Habitats. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. 2010. Introduction: Curiosity aroused. Nature 467(7317): S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butterworth, B. and Y. Kovas. 2013. Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340(6130): 300–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kao, M. H., A. J. Doupe and M. S. Brainard. 2005. Contributions of an avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit to real-time modulation of song. Nature 433(7026): 638–643.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tyrrell, L. P. et al. 2013. Looking above the prairie: localized and upward acute vision in a native grassland bird. Scientific reports 3: 3231.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keiser, G. 2006. FTTX Concepts and Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Krupnik, I. et al. eds. 2010. SIKU: Knowing Our Ice: Documenting Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, P. et al. 2015. Regression. Pp. 51–75 in Bayesian Nonparametric Data Analysis, Springer Series in Statistics, eds. Fernando Andres Quintana, A. Jara, and T. Hanson. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Habitats.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. 99% Of All Seabird Species Will Likely Be Eating Plastic By 2050. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Digital Television Transition: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGaughey, K. M. 2017. Textural juxtaposition: Representing the natural and the human in Elements. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., V. Yee and M. Furber. 2017. Resurgent Cry in Minnesota Police Killing: Why? New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson 2010; Butterworth and Kovas 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butterworth and Kovas 2013)
  • Three authors: (Kao, Doupe and Brainard 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tyrrell et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Habitats
ISSN (online)1541-7115

Other styles