How to format your references using the Urban Habitats citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Habitats. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tammann, G. A. 2010. Allan Sandage (1926-2010). Nature 468(7326): 898.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, A. J. and L. You. 2014. Cell biology. Cells listen to their inner voice. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343(6171): 624–625.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang, R.-Y., G. Li and J.-Q. Yu. 2014. Conformation-induced remote meta-C-H activation of amines. Nature 507(7491): 215–220.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, C. et al. 2013. Chlorine as an indicator in the controllable preparation of active nano-gold catalyst. Scientific reports 3: 1503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A. K. M. E., M. Arashi and S. M. M. Tabatabaey. 2014. Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Seckbach, J. and M. Walsh eds. 2008. From Fossils to Astrobiology: Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Baxley, T. P. and G. H. Boston. 2014. Always Carrying the Load. Pp. 49–63 in (In)visible Presence: Feminist Counter-Narratives of Young Adult Literature by Women of Color, Transgressions, ed. G. H. Boston. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Habitats.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2017. Marijuana Extract Reduces Seizures In Kids With Severe Epilepsy. IFLScience. Retreived October 30, 2018, from the IFLScience Website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Long-Standing Weaknesses in Enterprise Architecture Development Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weitkunat, S. 2015. Facies and Log Analysis of the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale. Doctoral dissertation. Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. 2013. In Detroit Ruling, Threats to Promises and Assumptions. New York Times: A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tammann 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Tammann 2010; Lee and You 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and You 2014)
  • Three authors: (Tang, Li and Yu 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Habitats
ISSN (online)1541-7115

Other styles