How to format your references using the Urban Habitats citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Habitats. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solis, M. 2014. Prevention: Before the break. Nature 508(7494): S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prokopenko, M. and J. T. Lizier. 2014. Transfer entropy and transient limits of computation. Scientific reports 4: 5394.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muraoka, T., K. Kinbara and T. Aida. 2006. Mechanical twisting of a guest by a photoresponsive host. Nature 440(7083): 512–515.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Muchnik, L. et al. 2013. Origins of power-law degree distribution in the heterogeneity of human activity in social networks. Scientific reports 3: 1783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S. M. 2010. Cost Reduction Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bendich, A. and R. J. Deckelbaum eds. 2010. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
McDermid, J. A. 2012. The Risks of LSCITS: The Odds Are Stacked against Us. Pp. 94–117 in Large-Scale Complex IT Systems. Development, Operation and Management: 17th Monterey Workshop 2012, Oxford, UK, March 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. R. Calinescu and D. Garlan. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Habitats.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2016. Activating The Brain’s “No-Go” Neurons Can Kill The Urge To Drink. IFLScience. Retreived October 30, 2018, from the IFLScience Website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Homeland Security: OMB’s Temporary Cessation of Information Technology Funding for New Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Queener, J. D. 2015. A Post-School Outcome Study of Students with Learning Disabilities. Doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. 2017. From Spain to Romania, There’s No Respite From the Heat. New York Times: TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solis 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Solis 2014; Prokopenko and Lizier 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prokopenko and Lizier 2014)
  • Three authors: (Muraoka, Kinbara and Aida 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Muchnik et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Habitats
ISSN (online)1541-7115

Other styles