How to format your references using the Urban Habitats citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Habitats. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunlap, J. C. 2006. Physiology. Running a clock requires quality time together. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5758): 184–186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stroscio, J. A. and R. J. Celotta. 2004. Controlling the dynamics of a single atom in lateral atom manipulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306(5694): 242–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoch, J. C., M. W. Maciejewski and M. R. Gryk. 2008. Comment on “magnetic resonance spectroscopy identifies neural progenitor cells in the live human brain.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321(5889): 640.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martina, B. E. E. et al. 2003. Virology: SARS virus infection of cats and ferrets. Nature 425(6961): 915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, W. et al. 2016. Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Ho, A. C. and C. D. Regillo eds. 2011. Age-related Macular Degeneration Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Molnar, J. A. 2010. Application of VAC Therapy in Burn Injury. Pp. 16–21 in Color Atlas of Burn Reconstructive Surgery, eds. H. Hyakusoku et al. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Habitats.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2016. Baby Frogs Hatch In A Hurry When Snakes Attack. IFLScience. Retreived October 30, 2018, from the IFLScience Website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Improved DOT Collaboration and Communication Could Enhance the Use of Technology to Manage Congestion. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zelaya, G. S. 2012. Hopelessness and diabetes: Do Hispanic diabetic patients feel less hopeless eating fruits, vegetables and exercising regularly? Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2012. A Rivalry to Add to the City’s Rich History. New York Times: D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dunlap 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Dunlap 2006; Stroscio and Celotta 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stroscio and Celotta 2004)
  • Three authors: (Hoch, Maciejewski and Gryk 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Martina et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Habitats
ISSN (online)1541-7115

Other styles