How to format your references using the Tumor Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tumor Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Coffman RL. Immunology. The origin of TH2 responses. Science. 2010;328:1116–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Parnell RJ, Buchanan-Smith HM. Animal behaviour. An unusual social display by gorillas. Nature. 2001;412:294.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McDougall I, Brown FH, Fleagle JG. Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia. Nature. 2005;433:733–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Smith JT, Comans RN, Beresford NA, Wright SM, Howard BJ, Camplin WC. Chernobyl’s legacy in food and water. Nature. 2000;405:141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jamison DC. Perl Programming for Biologists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Cheng P-J, Kan M-Y, Lam W, Nakov P, editors. Information Retrieval Technology: 6th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2010, Taipei, Taiwan, December 1-3, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jones C, Jia X. Using a Domain Specific Language for Lightweight Model-Driven Development. In: Maciaszek LA, Filipe J, editors. Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering: 9th International Conference, ENASE 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, April 28-30, 2014 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 46–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tumor Biology.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Falling In Love In Virtual Reality Could Be A Deeper Experience Than Real Life. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration May Face Resource and Other Challenges in Developing a System to Screen All Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Jul. Report No.: GAO-08-959T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gage JD. An inconsistency-based approach for sensing assessment in unknown environments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Eligon J, Cooper M. Blasts at Boston Marathon Kill 3 and Injure 100. New York Times. 2013 Apr 15;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTumor Biology
AbbreviationTumour Biol.
ISSN (print)1010-4283
ISSN (online)1423-0380
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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