How to format your references using the Tumor Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tumor Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chambers SA. Surface Science. Stability at the surface. Science. 2014;346:1186–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cox P, Stephenson D. Climate change. A changing climate for prediction. Science. 2007;317:207–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xue S, Calvin K, Li H. RNA recognition and cleavage by a splicing endonuclease. Science. 2006;312:906–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sibert J, Hampton J, Kleiber P, Maunder M. Biomass, size, and trophic status of top predators in the Pacific Ocean. Science. 2006;314:1773–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schumer PD. Mathematical Journeys. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Floudas G. Molecular Dynamics of Glass-Forming Systems: Effects of Pressure. Paluch M, Grzybowski A, Ngai K, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Giraud C. Differential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard. In: Joye M, Tunstall M, editors. Fault Analysis in Cryptography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tumor Biology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Pumpkins Almost Went Extinct With Mastodons [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Spectrum Management: FCC’s Licensing Approach in the 11, 18, and 23 Gigahertz Bands Currently Supports Spectrum Availability and Efficiency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Nov. Report No.: GAO-13-78R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Matthews LK. The impact of trait displaced aggression and social support on cardiovascular reactivity [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wilson M. In Chelsea Bombing Trial, a Lesson on How a Cellphone Becomes a Trigger. New York Times. 2017 Oct 10;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTumor Biology
AbbreviationTumour Biol.
ISSN (print)1010-4283
ISSN (online)1423-0380
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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