How to format your references using the Tumor Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tumor Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sampat BN. Lessons from Bayh-Dole. Nature. 2010;468:755–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Engel MS, Grimaldi DA. New light shed on the oldest insect. Nature. 2004;427:627–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yamashiro H, Isomura N, Sakai K. Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6032.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dumestre F, Chaudret B, Amiens C, Renaud P, Fejes P. Superlattices of iron nanocubes synthesized from Fe[N(SiMe3)2]2. Science. 2004;303:821–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Douglas B. Achieving Business Success with GIS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Badica A, Trawinski B, Nguyen NT, editors. Recent Developments in Computational Collective Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ahlert D, Schefer B. Competition-Policy Implications. In: Schefer B, editor. Vertical Price Coordination and Brand Care: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Prohibition of Resale Price Maintenance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tumor Biology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. 50 Years Ago, We Were Taking The First Photos From The Moon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Status of Emergency and State and Local Law Enforcement Systems Is Still Unknown. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Apr. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-163.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Deshotel MW. Enhancing Undergraduate Water Resources Engineering Education Using Data and Modeling Resources Situated in Real-world Ecosystems: Design Principles and Challenges for Scaling and Sustainability [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. THEODORE HERMANBONNIE BURKEDANIEL ROTHFRANKLIN L. TOWBERMARK ARONOFFKATHLEEN KELLY(Prof.) HOWARD A. SCARROWSTEPHEN JOEL TRACHTENBERG. Letters; America’s Burden in the Afghanistan Crisis Impotence in the Face of Soviet Aggression Let Russian Commerce Have an Ice-Free Port Set for San Juan Hill? The Sounds Of Mandarin Sex and the Monarchy A Single-Issue Party’s Clout Errant Philanthropy. New York Times. 1980 Feb 3;The Week In ReviewE20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTumor Biology
AbbreviationTumour Biol.
ISSN (print)1010-4283
ISSN (online)1423-0380
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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