How to format your references using the Tumor Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tumor Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Siegal M. Neuroscience. Signposts to the essence of language. Science. 2004;305:1720–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Liao L, Cao Z. Directional scaling symmetry of high-symmetry two-dimensional lattices. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6193.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stine AR, Huybers P, Fung IY. Changes in the phase of the annual cycle of surface temperature. Nature. 2009;457:435–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Humeau Y, Shaban H, Bissière S, Lüthi A. Presynaptic induction of heterosynaptic associative plasticity in the mammalian brain. Nature. 2003;426:841–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fleming P, Lee R. Orthodontic Functional Appliances. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Tröger J. Paediatric Imaging Manual. Seidensticker P, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kilian T, Walsh G, Buxel H. Measurement of Attitude Toward Private Labels: A Replication and Extension. In: Swoboda B, Morschett D, Rudolph T, Schnedlitz P, Schramm-Klein H, editors. European Retail Research. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag; 2009. p. 69–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tumor Biology.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Are We Alone? Life On Earth May Have Formed Prematurely [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Programs for Land-Grant Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-96-91R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wyers ML. An Investigation of Teacher Understanding and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Use of Learning Targets in the Classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. So Smart (but Truly Vile). New York Times. 2016 Dec 13;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTumor Biology
AbbreviationTumour Biol.
ISSN (print)1010-4283
ISSN (online)1423-0380
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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