How to format your references using the Trends in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willems, P.A. (2009) The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry. Science 325, 707–708
A journal article with 2 authors
Melbourne, T.I. and Webb, F.H. (2003) Geophysics. Slow but not quite silent. Science 300, 1886–1887
A journal article with 3 authors
James, L.C. et al. (2003) Antibody multispecificity mediated by conformational diversity. Science 299, 1362–1367
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Sciaini, G. et al. (2009) Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth. Nature 458, 56–59

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arboleda, H. and Royer, J.-C. (2012) Model-Driven and Software Product Line Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Smeyers, P. and Depaepe, M., eds. (2006) Educational Research: Why ‘What Works’ Doesn’t Work, Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kroupa, P. et al. (2013) The Stellar and Sub-Stellar Initial Mass Function of Simple and Composite Populations. In Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems: Volume 5: Galactic Structure and Stellar Populations (Oswalt, T. D. and Gilmore, G., eds), pp. 115–242, Springer Netherlands

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 06-Feb-(2015) , Termite Mounds Can Prevent Spread Of Deserts In Vulnerable Ecosystems. , IFLScience. [Online]. [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Information Technology: VA and DOD Are Making Progress in Sharing Medical Information, but Are Far from Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christiansen, L.M. (2009) , The impact of high quality professional development on student achievement in the state of Missouri. , Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coscarelli, J. 20-Apr-(2017) , New Prince Songs Blocked by Judge. , New York Times, C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Microbiology
AbbreviationTrends Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0966-842X
ISSN (online)1878-4380
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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