How to format your references using the Trends in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. (2003) Atlantic cod meet icy death. Nature 422, 792
A journal article with 2 authors
Lounis, B. and Moerner, W.E. (2000) Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature. Nature 407, 491–493
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, C. et al. (2004) A Triassic aquatic protorosaur with an extremely long neck. Science 305, 1931
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Smith, D.E. et al. (2006) Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance. Science 311, 53

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavroudis, O.N. (2006) The Mathematics of Geometrical and Physical Optics, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wang, E. (2014) High-Performance Computing on the Intel® Xeon PhiTM: How to Fully Exploit MIC Architectures, Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, G.F. (2011) The Generation Of Integrity Bases. In Non-linear Continuum Theories in Mechanics and Physics and their Applications (Rilvil, R. S., ed), pp. 311–351, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 10-Mar-(2017) , DNA Reveals Aboriginal People Had A Long And Settled Connection To Country. , IFLScience. [Online]. [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General, Vol. II, No. 1, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckingham, T. (2012) , Every teacher an English teacher? Literacy strategy teaching and research in the content area of science education. , Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen, J. 29-Mar-(2017) , What Cold War Intrigue Can Tell Us About the Trump-Russia Inquiry. , New York Times, A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Microbiology
AbbreviationTrends Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0966-842X
ISSN (online)1878-4380
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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