How to format your references using the Trends in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tomasz, A. (2006) Microbiology. Weapons of microbial drug resistance abound in soil flora. Science 311, 342–343
A journal article with 2 authors
Conover, D.O. and Munch, S.B. (2002) Sustaining fisheries yields over evolutionary time scales. Science 297, 94–96
A journal article with 3 authors
Desai, S.A. et al. (2000) A voltage-dependent channel involved in nutrient uptake by red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite. Nature 406, 1001–1005
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Miller, C.N. et al. (2018) Thymic tuft cells promote an IL-4-enriched medulla and shape thymocyte development. Nature 559, 627–631

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bai, Y. (2012) Practical Database Programming with Visual Basic.NET, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Roossinck, M.J., ed. (2008) Plant Virus Evolution, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Buendía-García, F. and Benlloch-Dualde, J.V. (2012) Concept Maps and Patterns for Designing Learning Scenarios Based on Digital-Ink Technologies. In International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning (Vittorini, P. et al., eds), pp. 27–35, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Microbiology.

Blog post
Taub, B. 22-Aug-(2016) , World’s Oldest Human Bone Reportedly Found In Saudi Arabia. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gatti, D.M. (2010) , Genome-wide analysis of transcriptional regulation in the murine liver. , Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood, C. 28-Jul-(2016) , A Madman Tangled in Thickets of Dark Satire. , New York Times, C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Microbiology
AbbreviationTrends Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0966-842X
ISSN (online)1878-4380
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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