How to format your references using the Trends in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petherick, A. (2010) Country by country. Nature 465, S10-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Leathers, M.L. and Olson, C.R. (2012) In monkeys making value-based decisions, LIP neurons encode cue salience and not action value. Science 338, 132–135
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, S.-H. et al. (2003) The glass-to-glass transition and its end point in a copolymer micellar system. Science 300, 619–622
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Floyd, J.S. et al. (2002) Seismotectonics of mid-ocean ridge propagation in Hess Deep. Science 298, 1765–1768

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adam, C. (2016) Forensic Evidence in Court, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pitkänen, P. et al., eds. (2012) Migration and Transformation: Multi-Level Analysis of Migrant Transnationalism, 3Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nützel, G. (2011) Single-Photon Imaging Using Electron Multiplication in Vacuum. In Single-Photon Imaging (Seitz, P. and Theuwissen, A. J. P., eds), pp. 73–102, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 03-Jan-(2017) , A Completely New Human Organ Has Just Been Officially Discovered. , IFLScience. [Online]. [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Student Loan Defaults: Department of Education Limitations in Sanctioning Problem Schools, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, K.S. (2008) , Towards an improved baton technique: The application and modification of conducting gestures drawn from the methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitö for enhanced performance of orchestral interpretations. , Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M. 03-Aug-(2014) , At an 85-Year-Old Summer Retreat, a Makeover. , New York Times, LI8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Microbiology
AbbreviationTrends Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0966-842X
ISSN (online)1878-4380
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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