How to format your references using the Trends in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mustelin, T. (2006) Immunology. Restless T cells sniff and go. Science 313, 1902–1903
A journal article with 2 authors
Marek, P.E. and Bond, J.E. (2006) Biodiversity hotspots: rediscovery of the world’s leggiest animal. Nature 441, 707
A journal article with 3 authors
Fu, Q. et al. (2003) Active nonmetallic Au and Pt species on ceria-based water-gas shift catalysts. Science 301, 935–938
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Krimigis, S.M. et al. (2003) Voyager 1 exited the solar wind at a distance of approximately 85 Au from the Sun. Nature 426, 45–48

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prydie, D. and Hewitt, I. (2015) Practical Physiotherapy for Small Animal Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liu, J. (2005) Autonomy Oriented Computing: From Problem Solving to Complex Systems Modeling, 12Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferraz Dias de Moraes, M.A. and Zilberman, D. (2014) Organizational Changes Within the Public Sphere. In Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil: From State Intervention to a Free Market (Zilberman, D., ed), pp. 53–58, Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Microbiology.

Blog post
Davis, J. 18-Oct-(2016) , September Was The Warmest Month On Record, Meaning It’s Now All But Certain 2016 Will Be The Warmest Year. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Possible Misuse of Public Funds in Sale of Park Land, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hollenbeck, J.L. (2017) , The Challenge of U.S. West Coast Earthquake Response: Federal Urban Search and Rescue. , Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Williams, J. 25-Jun-(2017) , Who Says Religion and Science Don’t Mix? , New York Times, C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Microbiology
AbbreviationTrends Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0966-842X
ISSN (online)1878-4380
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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