How to format your references using the Translational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas CD. The Anthropocene could raise biological diversity. Nature. 2013;502(7469):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Montpetit B, Weis K. Cell biology. An alternative route for nuclear mRNP export by membrane budding. Science. 2012;336(6083):809-810.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fraser C, Hanage WP, Spratt BG. Recombination and the nature of bacterial speciation. Science. 2007;315(5811):476-480.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kinoshita T, Doi M, Suetsugu N, Kagawa T, Wada M, Shimazaki K. Phot1 and phot2 mediate blue light regulation of stomatal opening. Nature. 2001;414(6864):656-660.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumacher L. Divine Illumination. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Tiampo KF, Weatherley DK, Weinstein SA, eds. Earthquakes: Simulations, Sources and Tsunamis. Birkhäuser; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Belohlavek R. What is a Fuzzy Concept Lattice? II. In: Kuznetsov SO, Ślęzak D, Hepting DH, Mirkin BG, eds. Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining and Granular Computing: 13th International Conference, RSFDGrC 2011, Moscow, Russia, June 25-27, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:19-26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Research.

Blog post
Davis J. Monkey Muggers Steal Tourists’ Belongings, Holding Them For Ransom In Exchange For Food. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Market Preparedness: Improvements Made, but More Action Needed to Prepare for Wide-Scale Disasters. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart AR. Entrepreneurial Perception: A Survey of Graduates of a Global Management MBA Program. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Filipino Fast Food to Linger Over. New York Times. March 18, 2007:NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Research
AbbreviationTransl. Res.
ISSN (print)1931-5244
ISSN (online)1878-1810
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles