How to format your references using the Translational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perrin S. Preclinical research: Make mouse studies work. Nature. 2014;507(7493):423-425.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wade J, Wood BJ. The Earth’s “missing” niobium may be in the core. Nature. 2001;409(6816):75-78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thibodeaux CJ, Melançon CE, Liu H-W. Unusual sugar biosynthesis and natural product glycodiversification. Nature. 2007;446(7139):1008-1016.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ferrón SR, Charalambous M, Radford E, et al. Postnatal loss of Dlk1 imprinting in stem cells and niche astrocytes regulates neurogenesis. Nature. 2011;475(7356):381-385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzinski J, Abu-Rub H, Strankowski P. Variable Speed AC Drives with Inverter Output Filters. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Chaudhuri P. View-Dependent Character Animation. (Kalra P, Banerjee S, eds.). Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Joarder R, Crundwell N. Case 5. In: Crundwell N, ed. Case Studies in Chest Imaging. Springer; 2012:17-19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Monkey Species Identified From Its Unusual Penis And Scrotum. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cloud Computing: Additional Opportunities and Savings Need to Be Pursued. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lastica JR. Why Do They Stay? A Phenomenological Study of Secondary Science Teacher Experiences. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Returning Home, and All’s Not Well. New York Times. October 17, 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Research
AbbreviationTransl. Res.
ISSN (print)1931-5244
ISSN (online)1878-1810
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles