How to format your references using the Translational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichtenthaler SF. Cell biology. Sheddase gets guidance. Science. 2012;335(6065):179-180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marmorstein R, Simon MC. Structural biology: Hypoxia response becomes crystal clear. Nature. 2015;524(7565):298-300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lisiecki LE, Raymo ME, Curry WB. Atlantic overturning responses to Late Pleistocene climate forcings. Nature. 2008;456(7218):85-88.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jung H, In C, Choi H, Lee H. Anisotropy modeling of terahertz metamaterials: polarization dependent resonance manipulation by meta-atom cluster. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight JG. Coal-Fired Power Generation Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Klingebiel S, Mahn T, Negre M, eds. The Fragmentation of Aid: Concepts, Measurements and Implications for Development Cooperation. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Neidig J, Grosch T, Heim U. The Smart SemProM. In: Wahlster W, ed. SemProM: Foundations of Semantic Product Memories for the Internet of Things. Cognitive Technologies. Springer; 2013:73-89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Research.

Blog post
Davis J. All The World’s Spiders Eat As Much Prey As All The World’s Whales. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Local Tax Abatement. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanag HB. Building Bridges of Hope after Loss: A Self-Directed Workbook for Foster Parents. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard A, Gordon MR. Aid Convoy Is Hit in Syria as Cease-Fire Falters and Bombings Resume. New York Times. September 19, 2016:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Research
AbbreviationTransl. Res.
ISSN (print)1931-5244
ISSN (online)1878-1810
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles