How to format your references using the Translational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radman M. Fidelity and infidelity. Nature. 2001;413(6852):115.
A journal article with 2 authors
Daily GC, Walker BH. Seeking the great transition. Nature. 2000;403(6767):243-245.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bliss TVP, Collingridge GL, Laroche S. Neuroscience. ZAP and ZIP, a story to forget. Science. 2006;313(5790):1058-1059.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kaaret P, Corbel S, Prestwich AH, Zezas A. Radio emission from an ultraluminous x-ray source. Science. 2003;299(5605):365-367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell DL, Arlow PC. Industrial Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Arumugam S, Smyth WF, eds. Combinatorial Algorithms: 23rd International Workshop, IWOCA 2012, Tamil Nadu, India, July 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 7643. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bieger J, Thórisson KR, Wang P. Safe Baby AGI. In: Bieger J, Goertzel B, Potapov A, eds. Artificial General Intelligence: 8th International Conference, AGI 2015, AGI 2015, Berlin, Germany, July 22-25, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:46-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Research.

Blog post
Fang J. Earth Was Bombarded By Huge Meteorites Constantly Until 3 Billion Years Ago. IFLScience. Published August 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on NTSB Employee’s Claim for TQSE]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClurg AD. A phenomenological study of Baby Boomer retirement— Expectations, results, and implications. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. Gamblers, Scientists and the Hot Hand. New York Times. October 17, 2015:SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Research
AbbreviationTransl. Res.
ISSN (print)1931-5244
ISSN (online)1878-1810
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles