How to format your references using the Translational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vrakking M. Journal club. A physicist discusses how to visualize a molecule changing shape. Nature. 2010;465(7296):271.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Winter W, Oxnard CE. Evolutionary radiations and convergences in the structural organization of mammalian brains. Nature. 2001;409(6821):710-714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Z, Wang W, Qiu B. Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies. Science. 2014;345(6194):322-324.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piwon N, Günther W, Schwake M, Bösl MR, Jentsch TJ. ClC-5 Cl- -channel disruption impairs endocytosis in a mouse model for Dent’s disease. Nature. 2000;408(6810):369-373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ford I. Statistical Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Dean RL, Bilsky EJ, Negus SS, eds. Opiate Receptors and Antagonists: From Bench to Clinic. Humana Press; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Mousley A, Novozhilova E, Kimber MJ, Day TA, Maule AG. Neuropeptide Physiology in Helminths. In: Geary TG, Maule AG, eds. Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and Pest Control. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer US; 2010:78-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Frogs Are Irrational. IFLScience. Published August 29, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Patent Office Should Define Quality, Reassess Incentives, and Improve Clarity. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Starr MJ. Tests for Positive Selection on Genes Encoding Heat Shock Proteins in the Marine Slipper Snail, Crepidula fornicata. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder A, Philipps D. Marine Crash Victims: Young Fathers, a Humming Sergeant, a Proud Texan. New York Times. July 14, 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Research
AbbreviationTransl. Res.
ISSN (print)1931-5244
ISSN (online)1878-1810
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles