How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.D. Wang, A biophysicist marvels at the idea of grabbing microscopic particles with light by tweaking its phase, Nature. 454 (2008) 921.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.K. Aanen, T. Bisseling, Microbiology. The birth of cooperation, Science. 345 (2014) 29–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.D. Guedes, R.K. Bocinsky, E.E. Butler, Asian archaeology. Comment on "Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 B.P. ", Science. 348 (2015) 872.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Shao, J. Wang, A. Misra, R.G. Hoagland, Spiral patterns of dislocations at nodes in (111) semi-coherent FCC interfaces, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Rushton, VHDL for Logic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
E.G. Hrycay, S.M. Bandiera, eds., Monooxygenase, Peroxidase and Peroxygenase Properties and Mechanisms of Cytochrome P450, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Liu, S.L. Tausta, N. Gandotra, T. Nelson, Rice Seed Development: Highly Resolved Transcriptomic Views, in: G.K. Agrawal, R. Rakwal (Eds.), Seed Development: OMICS Technologies toward Improvement of Seed Quality and Crop Yield: OMICS in Seed Biology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Want More Girls To Be Interested In Computer Science? Change Some Classroom Stereotypes, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, No Child Left Behind Act: Education Needs to Provide Additional Technical Assistance and Conduct Implementation Studies for School Choice Provision, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.S. Lee, Towards an improved baton technique: The application and modification of conducting gestures drawn from the methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitö for enhanced performance of orchestral interpretations, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D.T. Carter, What Donald Trump Owes George Wallace, New York Times. (2016) SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics
AbbreviationTheor. Appl. Fract. Mech.
ISSN (print)0167-8442
ScopeMechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Applied Mathematics
Condensed Matter Physics

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