How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.-T.A. Lee, Geophysics. Are Earth’s core and mantle on speaking terms?, Science. 306 (2004) 64–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Bekerman, S. Einav, Infectious disease. Combating emerging viral threats, Science. 348 (2015) 282–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Zhang, C.T. Chan, X. Hu, Broadband focusing and collimation of water waves by zero refractive index, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6979.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Ou, Z. Li, F. Fan, H. Wang, H. Wu, Long-range magnetic interaction and frustration in double perovskites Sr₂NiIrO₆ and Sr₂ZnIrO₆, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Padova, Adobe® Acrobat® X PDF Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2011.
An edited book
H. Lieberman, F. Paternò, V. Wulf, eds., End User Development, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
U.A.K. Betz, N. Camacho, M. Gerards, S. Stremersch, Grassroots Innovation: A Promising Innovation Paradigm for Pharmaceutical Companies, in: M. Ding, J. Eliashberg, S. Stremersch (Eds.), Innovation and Marketing in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Emerging Practices, Research, and Policies, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 119–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Fact Over Fiction On The ‘Apocalyptic’ Super Blood Moon, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Secure Flight Development and Testing Under Way, but Risks Should Be Managed as System Is Further Developed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.J. Spanier, The Relationship of Genes and Environment with Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Baggage, New and Old, Arrives at Citi Field, New York Times. (2011) D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics
AbbreviationTheor. Appl. Fract. Mech.
ISSN (print)0167-8442
ScopeMechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Applied Mathematics
Condensed Matter Physics

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