How to format your references using the The VLDB Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The VLDB Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadeem, M.: Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography. Sci. Rep. 4, 6774 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lieberman, R.L., Rosenzweig, A.C.: Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane. Nature. 434, 177–182 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Fu, Y., Xu, Y., Chen, H.: Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects. Sci. Rep. 4, 6428 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saini, D., Behlow, H., Podila, R., Dickel, D., Pillai, B., Skove, M.J., Serkiz, S.M., Rao, A.M.: Mechanical resonances of helically coiled carbon nanowires. Sci. Rep. 4, 5542 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crook, T., Kemp, P.A.: Transforming Private Landlords. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2010)
An edited book
Contopoulos, I., Gabuzda, D., Kylafis, N. eds: The Formation and Disruption of Black Hole Jets. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar, S., Gulati, R.: A Survey of Empirical Literature on Bank Efficiency. In: Gulati, R. (ed.) Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks. pp. 119–165. Springer India, New Delhi (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The VLDB Journal.

Blog post
Taub, B.: All Psychoactive Substances Are Now Illegal In The UK,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2016)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pope, C.: Words in the Garden, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scott, M., Kanter, J.: E.U. Ruling Said to Aim at Tax Policy for Apple, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe VLDB Journal
AbbreviationVLDB J.
ISSN (print)1066-8888
ISSN (online)0949-877X
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems

Other styles