How to format your references using the The Vaccine Companion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Vaccine Companion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halzen F. Neutrino astrophysics experiments beneath the sea and ice. Science 2007;315:66–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Paszek M, Weaver V. Biophysics. Enforcing order on signaling. Science 2010;327:1335–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lackner LL, Horner JS, Nunnari J. Mechanistic analysis of a dynamin effector. Science 2009;325:874–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chew SK, Chen P, Link N, Galindo KA, Pogue K, Abrams JM. Genome-wide silencing in Drosophila captures conserved apoptotic effectors. Nature 2009;460:123–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clarke A, Thompson A, Jenkinson E, Rumsey N, Newell R. CBT for Appearance Anxiety. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Allen J, van der Velden R, editors. The Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society: New Challenges for Higher Education. vol. 35. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ellingsæter AL. Nordic Politicization of Parenthood: Unfolding Hybridization? In: Richter M, Andresen S, editors. The Politicization of Parenthood: Shifting private and public responsibilities in education and child rearing, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012, p. 39–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Vaccine Companion.

Blog post
Taub B. NASA Releases Stunning Half-Hour Ultra HD Video Of The Sun. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Acquisition of Compact and Subcompact Passenger Vehicles To Conserve Fuel. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dill KD. Nonparametric alternative to Poly-k test in animal tumorigenicity studies. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casselman B. The Start-Up Slump Is a Drag on the Economy. Maybe Big Business Is to Blame. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Vaccine Companion
ISSN (print)1876-0775

Other styles