How to format your references using the The Vaccine Companion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Vaccine Companion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roederer M. Leonard Herzenberg (1931-2013). Nature 2013;504:34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flowers RM, Farley KA. Response to Comments on “Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon.” Science 2013;340:143.
A journal article with 3 authors
Provenzano V, Shapiro AJ, Shull RD. Reduction of hysteresis losses in the magnetic refrigerant Gd5Ge2Si2 by the addition of iron. Nature 2004;429:853–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu J, Linderman M, Ouyang Z, An L, Yang J, Zhang H. Ecological degradation in protected areas: the case of Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. Science 2001;292:98–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene M. An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Duquesne T. Lévy Matters I: Recent Progress in Theory and Applications: Foundations, Trees and Numerical Issues in Finance. vol. 2001. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Coulton P. Designing Mobile and Ubiquitous Games and Playful Interactions. In: Nijholt A, editor. Playful User Interfaces: Interfaces that Invite Social and Physical Interaction, Singapore: Springer; 2014, p. 71–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Vaccine Companion.

Blog post
Davis J. Belgian Neanderthals Were Butchering Their Dead. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lambert M. Generational Differences in the Workplace: The Perspectives of Three Generations on Career Mobility. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Writers Are Halted Mid-Sentence as a Y Cancels Classes. New York Times 2001:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Vaccine Companion
ISSN (print)1876-0775

Other styles