How to format your references using the The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Humphries C. Cooking: delicious science. Nature 2012;486:S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shinnar R, Citro F. Energy. A road map to U.S. decarbonization. Science 2006;313:1243–1244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eggenschwiler JT, Espinoza E, Anderson KV. Rab23 is an essential negative regulator of the mouse Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway. Nature 2001;412:194–198.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamashita YM, Mahowald AP, Perlin JR, Fuller MT. Asymmetric inheritance of mother versus daughter centrosome in stem cell division. Science 2007;315:518–521.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews C. A Practical Guide to Engineering Failure Investigation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 01/01/1998
An edited book
Miller S, editor. Teaching, Affirming, and Recognizing Trans and Gender Creative Youth: A Queer Literacy Framework. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016
A chapter in an edited book
Cavapozzi D, Fiume A, Garrouste C, Weber G. Human Capital Accumulation and Investment Behaviour. In: Börsch-Supan A, Brandt M, Hank K, Schröder M (eds). The Individual and the Welfare State: Life Histories in Europe. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011:45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew E. Meditation may Alter Male and Female Brains Differently [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: States’ Implementation of Transportation Management Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 01/13/1997

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Julfayan-Gregorian V. Success Strategies of First-Generation Foreign-Born Leaders. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The Mayors Slept Here: Gracie Mansion Is Just the Latest. New York Times. 2001;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (46,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
ISSN (print)1461-5185
ISSN (online)1757-9988

Other styles