How to format your references using the The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: Push to Revive Pluto Mission May Mean Competition for JPL. Science. 2000 Nov 17;290(5495):1270–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buskirk AR, Green R. Biochemistry. Getting past polyproline pauses. Science. 2013 Jan 4;339(6115):38–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peumans P, Uchida S, Forrest SR. Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films. Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):158–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang JW, Howson JM, Ghansah T, Desponts C, Ninos JM, May SL, et al. Influence of SHIP on the NK repertoire and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Science. 2002 Mar 15;295(5562):2094–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire P, Hampton D. Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Moura Neto FD. An Introduction to Inverse Problems with Applications. da Silva Neto AJ, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XXII, 246 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ganapol BD, Furfaro R. The Art of Analytical Benchmarking. In: Graziani F, editor. Computational Methods in Transport: Verification and Validation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 105–34. (Barth TJ, Griebel M, Keyes DE, Nieminen RM, Roose D, Schlick T, editors. Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy.

Blog post
Fang J. Unevolved Galaxy Hails from the Early Universe. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aerospace Testing: Promise of Closer NASA/DOD Cooperation Remains Largely Unfulfilled. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-98-52.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janairo B. Recovering Together: A Psychosocial Support Group for Young Adults with Schizophrenia and the People in Their Lives: A Grant Proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo K. Deborah Davis on Andy Warhol and Driving Route 66. New York Times. 2015 Oct 11;TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
AbbreviationCan. J. Hosp. Pharm.
ISSN (print)0008-4123
ISSN (online)1920-2903
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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