How to format your references using the The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gutscher MA. Geoscience. What caused the great Lisbon earthquake? Science. 2004 Aug 27;305(5688):1247–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lister AM, Sher AV. The origin and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Science. 2001 Nov 2;294(5544):1094–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saá P, Castilla J, Soto C. Presymptomatic detection of prions in blood. Science. 2006 Jul 7;313(5783):92–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kramer G, Rauch T, Rist W, Vorderwülbecke S, Patzelt H, Schulze-Specking A, et al. L23 protein functions as a chaperone docking site on the ribosome. Nature. 2002 Sep 12;419(6903):171–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenning A, Smith A, Rochovská A, Świa̧tek D. Domesticating Neo-Liberalism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Campilho A, Kamel M, editors. Image Analysis and Recognition: 11th International Conference, ICIAR 2014, Vilamoura, Portugal, October 22-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XXIII, 518 p. 214 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8814).
A chapter in an edited book
Webby RJ, Webster RG, Richt JA. Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations. In: Childs JE, Mackenzie JS, Richt JA, editors. Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Species Transmission. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 67–83. (Compans RW, Cooper MD, Kyoto TH, Koprowski H, Basel FM, Oldstone MBA, et al., editors. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Study Finds Recreational Cannabis Use Is Associated With Abnormalities In The Brain. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Requirements for Recurring Reports to the Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Nov. Report No.: PAD-80-49.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seipert KG. A correlational analysis of the values of Baby Boomer and Generation X rural public school principals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS, Apuzzo M. Comey Didn’t Want to Be Alone With President, He Told Sessions. New York Times. 2017 Jun 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
AbbreviationCan. J. Hosp. Pharm.
ISSN (print)0008-4123
ISSN (online)1920-2903
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles