How to format your references using the The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bensaude-Vincent B. Chemical analysis. Nature. 2001 Mar 22;410(6827):415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park SH, Bendelac A. CD1-restricted T-cell responses and microbial infection. Nature. 2000 Aug 17;406(6797):788–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi-Xiang Y, Ye J, Liu W-M. Goldstone and Higgs modes of photons inside a cavity. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 11;3:3476.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Al-Olayan EM, Beetsma AL, Butcher GA, Sinden RE, Hurd H. Complete development of mosquito phases of the malaria parasite in vitro. Science. 2002 Jan 25;295(5555):677–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yakushevich LV. Nonlinear Physics of DNA. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Navarro-Arribas G, Torra V, editors. Advanced Research in Data Privacy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. IX, 463 p. 72 illus., 18 illus. in color. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 567).
A chapter in an edited book
Hauff P, Reinhardt M, Foster S. Ultrasound Basics. In: Semmler W, Schwaiger M, editors. Molecular Imaging I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 91–107. (Hofmann F, editor. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Newly Discovered 17th Century Document Described Now-Extinct Mauritian Wildlife [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP, IRM and Telecommunications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-85-9.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witvorapong N. The Dynamics of Living Arrangements Among the Elderly [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith M, Kovaleski SF. For Officers After a Shooting, Unseen ‘Grieving.’ New York Times. 2017 Jun 6;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
AbbreviationCan. J. Hosp. Pharm.
ISSN (print)0008-4123
ISSN (online)1920-2903
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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