How to format your references using the The American Statistician citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Statistician (TAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2009), “Climate future,” Nature, 459, 628.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olivera, B. M., and Teichert, R. W. (2011), “Neuroscience: chemical ecology of pain,” Nature, 479, 306–307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng, Y.-N., Wu, X.-C., and Ji, Q. (2004), “Triassic marine reptiles gave birth to live young,” Nature, 432, 383–386.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Passino, M. A., Adams, R. A., Sikorski, S. L., and Akassoglou, K. (2007), “Regulation of hepatic stellate cell differentiation by the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 315, 1853–1856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackevičius, V. (2014), Integral and Measure, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhou, T., Yu, Y., Liu, Y., and Wang, B. (eds.) (2014), Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: A Modeling Tool for the Climate Change Research Community, Springer Earth System Sciences, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Metkar, S., and Talbar, S. (2013), “Conclusion and Research Direction,” in Motion Estimation Techniques for Digital Video Coding, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, ed. S. Talbar, New Delhi: Springer India, pp. 61–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Statistician.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017), “Republicans Set To Sell Off 3.3 Million Acres Of Public Land,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981), Achieving Greater Economies in Data Processing in Federal Government, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woerner, L. C. (2010), “Complicated grief: A case study of pathological bereavement,” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2017), “Even as Puerto Rico Was Buckling Under Debt, Investors Hungered for More,” New York Times, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston 2009; Olivera and Teichert 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olivera and Teichert 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Passino et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Statistician
AbbreviationAm. Stat.
ISSN (print)0003-1305
ISSN (online)1537-2731
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

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