How to format your references using the The American Statistician citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Statistician (TAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linnarsson, S. (2015), “NEUROSCIENCE. A tree of the human brain,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 350, 37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Csabai, I., and Szathmáry, E. (2011), “Comment on ‘A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus,’” Science (New York, N.Y.), 332, 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pawlowski, B., Dunbar, R. I., and Lipowicz, A. (2000), “Tall men have more reproductive success,” Nature, 403, 156.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Feng, P., Niu, M., Gao, C., Peng, S., and Shuai, C. (2014), “A novel two-step sintering for nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Scientific reports, 4, 5599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rim, C. T., and Mi, C. (2017), Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dator, J. A. (2015), Mutative Media: Communication Technologies and Power Relations in the Past, Present, and Futures, Lecture Notes in Social Networks, (J. A. Sweeney and A. M. Yee, eds.), Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Perlovsky, L. I. (2007), “Neural Dynamic Logic of Consciousness: the Knowledge Instinct,” in Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness, Understanding Complex Systems, eds. L. I. Perlovsky and R. Kozma, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 73–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Statistician.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016), “Nutrition May Be As Big A Challenge Today As HIV/AIDS Was 15 Years Ago,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991), High-Performance Computing: Industry Uses of Supercomputers and High-Speed Networks, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tofthagen, C. S. (2008), “Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool,” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2015), “Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times,” New York Times, C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Linnarsson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Csabai and Szathmáry 2011; Linnarsson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Csabai and Szathmáry 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Feng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Statistician
AbbreviationAm. Stat.
ISSN (print)0003-1305
ISSN (online)1537-2731
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

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