How to format your references using the The American Statistician citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Statistician (TAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pennisi, E. (2000), “GENOMICS: Rat Genome Off to an Early Start,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 289, 1267b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yen, H.-L., and Peiris, J. S. M. (2012), “Virology: bird flu in mammals,” Nature, 486, 332–333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Begun, D. R., Richmond, B. G., and Strait, D. S. (2007), “Comment on ‘Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branches,’” Science (New York, N.Y.), 318, 1066; author reply 1066.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Halik, M., Klauk, H., Zschieschang, U., Schmid, G., Dehm, C., Schütz, M., Maisch, S., Effenberger, F., Brunnbauer, M., and Stellacci, F. (2004), “Low-voltage organic transistors with an amorphous molecular gate dielectric,” Nature, 431, 963–966.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodman, G. B. (2014), Why Cultural Studies?, Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lavacchi, A. (2013), Nanotechnology in Electrocatalysis for Energy, Nanostructure Science and Technology, (H. Miller and F. Vizza, eds.), New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Caria, A. A., Silva, A. M., Gomes, D. R. R., and Oliveira, L. C. A. M. (2016), “Accounting as an Information System,” in MBA: Theory and Application of Business and Management Principles, Management and Industrial Engineering, eds. C. Machado and J. P. Davim, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 125–156.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Statistician.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015), “Busting Myths: A Practical Guide To Countering Science Denial,” IFLScience, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988), Annual Index: Reports Issued in FY 1988, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Biller, J. T. (2012), “Cyber-Terrorism: Finding a Common Starting Point,” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017), “Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman,” New York Times, MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pennisi 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pennisi 2000; Yen and Peiris 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yen and Peiris 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Halik et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Statistician
AbbreviationAm. Stat.
ISSN (print)0003-1305
ISSN (online)1537-2731
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

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