How to format your references using the The American Statistician citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Statistician (TAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sette, A. (2000), “Tools of the trade in vaccine design,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 290, 2074b–5b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hempstead, B. L., and Salzer, J. L. (2002), “Neurobiology. A glial spin on neurotrophins,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 298, 1184–1186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Obata, Y., Kono, T., and Hatada, I. (2002), “Gene silencing: maturation of mouse fetal germ cells in vitro,” Nature, 418, 497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mou, X., Sun, S., Edwards, R. A., Hodson, R. E., and Moran, M. A. (2008), “Bacterial carbon processing by generalist species in the coastal ocean,” Nature, 451, 708–711.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, K. (2015), Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reible, D., and Lanczos, T. (eds.) (2006), Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments Bratislava, Slovak Republic 18–21 May 2005, Nato Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Broch Johnsen, E., Owe, O., Schlatte, R., and Tapia Tarifa, S. L. (2011), “Validating Timed Models of Deployment Components with Parametric Concurrency,” in Formal Verification of Object-Oriented Software: International Conference, FoVeOOS 2010, Paris, France, June 28-30, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. B. Beckert and C. Marché, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 46–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Statistician.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016), “What’s The Most Common Surname In Different Countries Across The World?,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980), Comments on Claim Against Mississippi for Disallowed Educational Grant Expenditures, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClimon, M. (2016), “A transformational approach to jazz harmony,” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crane, A. T., Hay, G., and Larsen, P. T. (2011), “Mortgage Market Due for Overhaul,” New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sette 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hempstead and Salzer 2002; Sette 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hempstead and Salzer 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mou et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Statistician
AbbreviationAm. Stat.
ISSN (print)0003-1305
ISSN (online)1537-2731
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

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