How to format your references using the Teaching and Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Casey, B. J. (2002). Neuroscience. Windows into the human brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5572), 1408–1409.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegazy, A. N., & Powrie, F. (2015). MICROBIOME. Microbiota RORgulates intestinal suppressor T cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6251), 929–930.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilb, D., Gomberg, J., & Bodin, P. (2000). Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses. Nature, 408(6812), 570–574.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stracker, T. H., Morales, M., Couto, S. S., Hussein, H., & Petrini, J. H. J. (2007). The carboxy terminus of NBS1 is required for induction of apoptosis by the MRE11 complex. Nature, 447(7141), 218–221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reinke, P. (2012). Inorganic Nanostructures. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Peters, M. (Ed.). (2009). Computational Fluid Dynamics for Sport Simulation (Vol. 72). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Prandtstetter, M., Ritzinger, U., Schmidt, P., & Ruthmair, M. (2015). A Variable Neighborhood Search Approach for the Interdependent Lock Scheduling Problem. In G. Ochoa & F. Chicano (Eds.), Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization: 15th European Conference, EvoCOP 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark, April 8-10, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 36–47). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 25). Top 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). District of Columbia Government: Overtime Costs Exceed Those of Neighboring Governments (GGD-97-159BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tasoff, A. J. (2017). Quantifying the Genetic Capacity of California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) to Adapt to Ocean Acidification [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016, August 29). Now Arriving on the New York Subway: Free E-Books, Timed for Your Commute. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Casey, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Casey, 2002; Hegazy & Powrie, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hegazy & Powrie, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Kilb et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stracker et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Teacher Education
AbbreviationTeach. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-051X

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