How to format your references using the Teaching and Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, R. M. (2010). Ecology. Tropical arthropod species, more or less? Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
McInerney, J. O., & O’Connell, M. J. (2014). Evolutionary developmental biology: Ghost locus appears. Nature, 514(7524), 570–571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang, P., Jacobson, M. K., & Mitchison, T. J. (2004). Poly(ADP-ribose) is required for spindle assembly and structure. Nature, 432(7017), 645–649.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Suh, B.-C., Inoue, T., Meyer, T., & Hille, B. (2006). Rapid chemically induced changes of PtdIns(4,5)P2 gate KCNQ ion channels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5804), 1454–1457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover, L. (2010). Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zaidi, M. K. (Ed.). (2007). Wastewater Reuse–Risk Assessment, Decision-Making and Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wade, W. G. (2007). Characterisation of the human oral microbiome and metagenome. In M. Watanabe, O. Okuno, K. Sasaki, N. Takahashi, O. Suzuki, & H. Takada (Eds.), Interface Oral Health Science 2007: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium for Interface Oral Health Science, Held in Sendai, Japan, Between 18 and 19 February, 2007 (pp. 43–51). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Teacher Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, November 8). This Massive Sinkhole Just Swallowed Up A Street In Japan. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Graduate Medical Education: Trends in Training and Student Debt (GAO-09-438R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter, I. M. (2015). The discourse of the divine: Radical traditions of Black feminism, musicking, and myth within the Black public sphere (Civil Rights to the present) [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, March 25). Friday File: Recalling Batman’s Star Turn at Shea Stadium in ’66. New York Times, C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (May, 2010; McInerney & O’Connell, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McInerney & O’Connell, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Chang et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Suh et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Teacher Education
AbbreviationTeach. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-051X

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