How to format your references using the Teaching and Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mahadevan, M. S. (2010). Genetics. Exposing a DUX tale. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5999), 1607–1608.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baumiller, T. K., & Gahn, F. J. (2004). Testing predator-driven evolution with Paleozoic crinoid arm regeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1453–1455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhandawat, V., Reisert, J., & Yau, K.-W. (2005). Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5730), 1931–1934.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, J., Browning, S., Mahal, S. P., Oelschlegel, A. M., & Weissmann, C. (2010). Darwinian evolution of prions in cell culture. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5967), 869–872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ishiyama, J. T. (2011). Comparative Politics. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Deng, H., Miao, D., Lei, J., & Wang, F. L. (Eds.). (2011). Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence: Third International Conference, AICI 2011, Taiyuan, China, September 24-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part III (Vol. 7004). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blasco, O. (2010). The Bohr Radius of a Banach Space. In G. P. Curbera, G. Mockenhaupt, & W. J. Ricker (Eds.), Vector Measures, Integration and Related Topics (pp. 59–64). Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 13). Man Receives Facial Reconstruction With Help From 3D Printer. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Productivity, Science and Technology: Keys to U.S. Economic Growth (No. 105610). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zometa, E. (2017). Imaging Service Consultations: Imaging Express [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2016, October 27). Measure in Florida That Claims to Support Solar Power Could Discourage It. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mahadevan, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baumiller & Gahn, 2004; Mahadevan, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baumiller & Gahn, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Bhandawat et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Teacher Education
AbbreviationTeach. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-051X

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