How to format your references using the Teaching and Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hernanz, M. (2015). Astrophysics: A lithium-rich stellar explosion. Nature, 518(7539), 307–308.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGuire, A. L., & Gibbs, R. A. (2006). Genetics. No longer de-identified. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5772), 370–371.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabanov, A. A., Stoytchev, M., & Genack, A. Z. (2000). Statistical signatures of photon localization. Nature, 404(6780), 850–853.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brand, A., Behrend, O., Marquardt, T., McAlpine, D., & Grothe, B. (2002). Precise inhibition is essential for microsecond interaural time difference coding. Nature, 417(6888), 543–547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gostick, A., & Elton, C. (2006). Führen mit Möhren. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lenger, A., & Schumacher, F. (Eds.). (2015). Understanding the Dynamics of Global Inequality: Social Exclusion, Power Shift, and Structural Changes. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Savva, S. (2016). Re-imagining Schooling: Weaving the Picture of School as an Affinity Space for Twenty-First Century Through a Multiliteracies Lens. In A. Montgomery & I. Kehoe (Eds.), Reimagining the Purpose of Schools and Educational Organisations: Developing Critical Thinking, Agency, Beliefs in Schools and Educational Organisations (pp. 49–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Teacher Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 11). The Extraordinary Life Of Koko: The Gorilla Who Talks. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Repayment of Overpaid Cash-in-Lieu-of-Commodities Funds to Louisiana Youth Talent Promotion, Inc (CED-82-8). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krishna, S. (2017). Pediatric Pal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, December 6). Court to Rule on What Constitutes Employer Retaliation. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hernanz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hernanz, 2015; McGuire & Gibbs, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGuire & Gibbs, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Chabanov et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Brand et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Teacher Education
AbbreviationTeach. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-051X

Other styles