How to format your references using the Systemic Practice and Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Systemic Practice and Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapron G (2014) Challenge the abuse of science in setting policy. Nature 516:289
A journal article with 2 authors
Doebeli M, Dieckmann U (2003) Speciation along environmental gradients. Nature 421:259–264
A journal article with 3 authors
Richland LE, Zur O, Holyoak KJ (2007) Mathematics. Cognitive supports for analogies in the mathematics classroom. Science 316:1128–1129
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lee-Six H, Øbro NF, Shepherd MS, et al (2018) Population dynamics of normal human blood inferred from somatic mutations. Nature 561:473–478

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CCPS (2006) Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Chen Q, Hameurlain A, Toumani F, et al (eds) (2015) Database and Expert Systems Applications: 26th International Conference, DEXA 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 1-4, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Sugiura M, Ohiwa H (2007) A Supporting System of Informatics Education for University Freshmen. In: Tatnall A, Okamoto T, Visscher A (eds) Knowledge Management for Educational Innovation: IFIP WG 3.7 7th Conference on Information Technology in Educational Management (ITEM), Hamamatsu, Japan, July 23–26, 2006. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 27–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Systemic Practice and Action Research.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Revealed: how baby sea turtles spend their “lost years.” In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/revealed-how-baby-sea-turtles-spend-their-lost-years/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Financial Market Organizations Have Taken Steps to Protect against Electronic Attacks, but Could Take Additional Actions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant MG (2017) The Development of the Massive Open Online Course Virtual Learning Environment Scale (MVLE) and Model to Measure Satisfaction of MOOC Online Learning Courses in Higher Education: A Mixed Methods Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD (2017) Questions and Answers About the Ruling. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapron 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Doebeli and Dieckmann 2003; Chapron 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doebeli and Dieckmann 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee-Six et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSystemic Practice and Action Research
AbbreviationSyst. Pract. Action Res.
ISSN (print)1094-429X
ISSN (online)1573-9295
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management

Other styles