How to format your references using the Systemic Practice and Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Systemic Practice and Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherrill BM (2008) Physics. Designer atomic nuclei. Science 320:751–752
A journal article with 2 authors
Raes F, Swart R (2007) Climate change. Climate assessment: what’s next? Science 318:1386
A journal article with 3 authors
Ibarra RU, Edwards JS, Palsson BO (2002) Escherichia coli K-12 undergoes adaptive evolution to achieve in silico predicted optimal growth. Nature 420:186–189
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Song K, Kim K, Hur S, et al (2014) Sound pressure level gain in an acoustic metamaterial cavity. Sci Rep 4:7421

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama M, Kiamouche W, Batatia H (2015) Connections Management Strategies in Satellite Cellular Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Buček J, Ryder A (eds) (2015) Governance in Transition. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
McGettigan T, Smith E (2016) Scientific Racism. In: Smith E (ed) A Formula for Eradicating Racism: Debunking White Supremacy. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 35–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Systemic Practice and Action Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Dr Henry Heimlich, Inventor Of The Heimlich Maneuver, Dies At 96. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weakenesses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wrobleski MM (2010) The challenge of teen nutrition: An ecological view of socio-cognitive influences on urban, African-American adolescent diet quality. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L (2017) Trump Tale of Pershing Killing Muslim Captives ‘Has No Basis in Truth.’ New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sherrill 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Raes and Swart 2007; Sherrill 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raes and Swart 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSystemic Practice and Action Research
AbbreviationSyst. Pract. Action Res.
ISSN (print)1094-429X
ISSN (online)1573-9295
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management

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