How to format your references using the Systemic Practice and Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Systemic Practice and Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
England J (2010) Canada needs a polar policy. Nature 463:159
A journal article with 2 authors
Ernst MO, Banks MS (2002) Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion. Nature 415:429–433
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaloni TP, Tahir M, Schwingenschlögl U (2013) Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride. Sci Rep 3:3192
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nieuwenhuis J, Adamopoulos A, Bleijerveld OB, et al (2017) Vasohibins encode tubulin detyrosinating activity. Science 358:1453–1456

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sedlacek HH, Sapienza AM, Eid V (2008) Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Bičík I (2015) Land Use Changes in the Czech Republic 1845–2010: Socio-Economic Driving Forces. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Aidos H, Fred A (2012) k-Nearest Neighbor Classification Using Dissimilarity Increments. In: Campilho A, Kamel M (eds) Image Analysis and Recognition: 9th International Conference, ICIAR 2012, Aveiro, Portugal, June 25-27, 2012. Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–33

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Systemic Practice and Action Research.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Map Of Earth’s Mantle Reveals That It’s Churning 10 Times Faster Than We Thought. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Aviation Safety: Improved Planning Could Help FAA Address Challenges Related to Winter Weather Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nixon HA (2015) Defining Principals: The Seen and the Unseen. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards Five and Six. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Kelly K (2017) Saudi Arabia’s Plan to Move Past Oil: Big Goals and Hurdles. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (England 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ernst and Banks 2002; England 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ernst and Banks 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nieuwenhuis et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleSystemic Practice and Action Research
AbbreviationSyst. Pract. Action Res.
ISSN (print)1094-429X
ISSN (online)1573-9295
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management

Other styles