How to format your references using the Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Goldston, The new boss in town, Nature. 457 (2009) 17.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Meselson, D. Mark Welch, Evolution. Stable heterozygosity?, Science. 318 (2007) 202–203.
A journal article with 3 authors
U. Sivars, D. Aivazian, S.R. Pfeffer, Yip3 catalyses the dissociation of endosomal Rab-GDI complexes, Nature. 425 (2003) 856–859.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Nee, N. Colegrave, S.A. West, A. Grafen, The illusion of invariant quantities in life histories, Science. 309 (2005) 1236–1239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.R. Fanchi, Math Refresher for Scientists and Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
D.E. Johnson, ed., Cell Death Signaling in Cancer Biology and Treatment, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
A.M. Macleod, Free Speech, Equal Opportunity, and Justice, in: D. Golash (Ed.), Freedom of Expression in a Diverse World, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synergy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Watch Live As NASA’s SMAP Satellite Launches From California, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Emergency Management: Improved Federal Coordination Could Better Assist K-12 Schools Prepare for Emergencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.M. Policarpio, Interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, typically developing siblings, and parents: A systematic review of the literature, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Concert Settings Fit for a Romanov, New York Times. (2001) 53.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynergy
ISSN (print)2213-7130
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles