How to format your references using the Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.E. Ricklefs, Cladogenesis and morphological diversification in passerine birds, Nature. 430 (2004) 338–341.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Smyth, M.H. Kershaw, Immunology. The adjuvant effects of antibodies, Science. 333 (2011) 944–945.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.J. McDonald, W.A. Teder-Sälejärvi, S.A. Hillyard, Involuntary orienting to sound improves visual perception, Nature. 407 (2000) 906–908.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Madueno, M.T. Räisänen, C. Silien, M. Buck, Functionalizing hydrogen-bonded surface networks with self-assembled monolayers, Nature. 454 (2008) 618–621.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Prud’Homme, Flows and Chemical Reactions in an Electromagnetic Field, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
E.G. Thomas, S.R. Rao, eds., Proceedings of the 1988 International Conference of Services Marketing, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Bahri, E.M.S. Hitzer, S. Adji, Two-Dimensional Clifford Windowed Fourier Transform, in: E. Bayro-Corrochano, G. Scheuermann (Eds.), Geometric Algebra Computing: In Engineering and Computer Science, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synergy.

Blog post
T. Hale, Animation Shows How An Ugly 500-Million-Year-Old Species Danced For Food, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.E. Colna, Latitudinal Position and Trends of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its Relationship with Upwelling in the Southern Caribbean Sea and Global Climate Indices, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
S. Joy, Dare to Be Daring, New York Times. (2016) D13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynergy
ISSN (print)2213-7130
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmacology (medical)

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