How to format your references using the Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Wileman, Aggresomes and autophagy generate sites for virus replication, Science. 312 (2006) 875–878.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Brooks, M.L. Smith, Ecology. Caribbean catastrophes, Science. 294 (2001) 1469–1471.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Domnisoru, A.A. Kinkhabwala, D.W. Tank, Membrane potential dynamics of grid cells, Nature. 495 (2013) 199–204.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Andoralov, M. Falk, D.B. Suyatin, M. Granmo, J. Sotres, R. Ludwig, V.O. Popov, J. Schouenborg, Z. Blum, S. Shleev, Biofuel cell based on microscale nanostructured electrodes with inductive coupling to rat brain neurons, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.R. Martin, Nuclear and Particle Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
G.N. Allahbadia, M. Nitzschke, eds., Minimal Stimulation and Natural Cycle In Vitro Fertilization, 1st ed. 2015, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Inselberg, P.L. Lai, Visualization and Data Mining for High Dimensional Data, in: P. Braslavski, N. Karpov, M. Worring, Y. Volkovich, D.I. Ignatov (Eds.), Information Retrieval: 8th Russian Summer School, RuSSIR 2014, Nizhniy, Novgorod, Russia, August 18-22, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 142–184.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synergy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Human Trial Investigating Cannabis As A Brain Cancer Treatment Set To Begin This Year, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Use of ADP Equipment Operated by Three or Four Typical Government Contractors, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.E. Lopez, Understanding and responding to culturally based spiritual phenomena among Latino clinicians, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Britain Adds Olympian, New York Times. (2012) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynergy
ISSN (print)2213-7130
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmacology (medical)

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