How to format your references using the Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Koentges, Journal club. A genomic systems biologist muses on how shared DNA mistakes reveal shared cellular ancestry, Nature. 467 (2010) 255.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.B. Shapiro, P.N. Ossorio, Research ethics. Regulation of online social network studies, Science. 339 (2013) 144–145.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.G. Angelakis, P. Das, C. Noh, Probing the topological properties of the Jackiw-Rebbi model with light, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6110.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.G. Marsh, L.S. Mullineaux, C.M. Young, D.T. Manahan, Larval dispersal potential of the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, Nature. 411 (2001) 77–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. DiBattista, Novel Characters, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
T. Carraro, M. Geiger, S. Körkel, R. Rannacher, eds., Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods: MuS-TDD, Heidelberg, May 6-8, 2013, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Bunimovich, B. Webb, Pseudospectra and Inverse Pseudospectra, in: B. Webb (Ed.), Isospectral Transformations: A New Approach to Analyzing Multidimensional Systems and Networks, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 129–146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synergy.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, We Might Be Witnessing The Birth Of An Ice Giant Planet, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, James Webb Space Telescope: Project Meeting Commitments but Current Technical, Cost, and Schedule Challenges Could Affect Continued Progress, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Chlarson-Varner, Falls among older adults 65 years and older, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Purge Victims Remembered In Moscow Rite, New York Times. (2007) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynergy
ISSN (print)2213-7130
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmacology (medical)

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