How to format your references using the Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, Charm, not tact, aided pioneer in fight for physics, Nature. 403 (2000) 586–587.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.A. Seder, A.V. Hill, Vaccines against intracellular infections requiring cellular immunity, Nature. 406 (2000) 793–798.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.D. Bidle, M. Manganelli, F. Azam, Regulation of oceanic silicon and carbon preservation by temperature control on bacteria, Science. 298 (2002) 1980–1984.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.R. Nedimović, S.M. Carbotte, A.J. Harding, R.S. Detrick, J.P. Canales, J.B. Diebold, G.M. Kent, M. Tischer, J.M. Babcock, Frozen magma lenses below the oceanic crust, Nature. 436 (2005) 1149–1152.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Eligehausen, R. Mallée, J.F. Silva, Anchorage in Concrete Construction, Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany, 2012.
An edited book
A. Ghosh, L.C. Jain, eds., Evolutionary Computation in Data Mining, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
D.J. Paul, Quantum Cascade Lasers, in: M. Perenzoni, D.J. Paul (Eds.), Physics and Applications of Terahertz Radiation, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 103–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synergy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Most Amazing Photograph of Saturn Ever, IFLScience. (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Economies Available Through Consolidating or Collocating Government Land-Based, High Frequency Communications Facilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.D. Boudreau, Orthogonality in Natural Products Workflows, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Baton in This Race Is the Conductor’s, New York Times. (2014) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynergy
ISSN (print)2213-7130
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmacology (medical)

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