How to format your references using the Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Greensfelder, INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Polio Outbreak Raises Questions About Vaccine, Science. 290 (2000) 1867b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.R. Boos, Z. Kuang, Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1192.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Ng, W. Cai, K. Walsh, The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6034.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.-Y. Ruan, V.A. Lobastov, F. Vigliotti, S. Chen, A.H. Zewail, Ultrafast electron crystallography of interfacial water, Science. 304 (2004) 80–84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lombard, SolidWorks® 2011 Parts Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2011.
An edited book
T.J. Hall, S.V. Gaponenko, S.A. Paredes, eds., Extreme Photonics & Applications, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
M. İlsever, C. Ünsalan, TEXTURE ANALYSIS BASED CHANGE DETECTION METHODS, in: C. Ünsalan (Ed.), Two-Dimensional Change Detection Methods: Remote Sensing Applications, Springer, London, 2012: pp. 35–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synergy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Drone-Smacking Chimp Shows Forward Planning Of Weapon Use, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information on Materials and Practices for Improving Highway Pavement Performance, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Fichera, Transport of seawater and its influence on the transverse tensile strength of unidirectional composite materials, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
V.M. Mallozzi, She’s 98. He’s 94. They Met at the Gym, New York Times. (2017) ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSynergy
ISSN (print)2213-7130
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles