How to format your references using the Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Loder, Northern lobby attacks UK synchrotron siting, Nature. 404 (2000) 323.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Liemert, A. Kienle, Exact and efficient solution of the radiative transport equation for the semi-infinite medium, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2018.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Tersoff, D.E. Jesson, W.X. Tang, Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide, Science. 324 (2009) 236–238.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Yin, X. Zhu, R. Li, Y. Niu, B. Wang, Z. Zheng, X. Huang, L. Huo, J. Li, Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Meiswinkel, J. Meyer, J. Schnell, Design and Construction of Nuclear Power Plants, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
A. Eichler, Empirical Research in Statistics Education, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Placier, S. Pinnegar, M.L. Hamilton, K. Guilfoyle, Exploring the Concept of Dialogue in the Self-Study of Teaching Practices, in: C. Kosnik, C. Beck, A.R. Freese, A.P. Samaras (Eds.), Making a Difference in Teacher Education Through Self-Study: Studies of Personal, Professional and Program Renewal, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Researchers Confirm Those With Depression Experience “Fuzzy Thinking,” IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Evaluation and the Research Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Seger, The Occupy Movement: Signs of Cultural Shifts in Group Processes Shaped by Place, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.K. Schilling, Mother of Invention, New York Times. (2017) M2114.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Energy, Grids and Networks
AbbreviationSustain. Energy Grids Netw.
ISSN (print)2352-4677
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles