How to format your references using the Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, First for physics Chicago, Nature. 424 (2003) 706–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Gandin, I. Topisirovic, Cell biology. Trans-HSF1 express, Science. 341 (2013) 242–243.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.-C. Shen, M.-S. Lin, C.-F. Lin, Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5307.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.K. Knapp, P.A. Fay, J.M. Blair, S.L. Collins, M.D. Smith, J.D. Carlisle, C.W. Harper, B.T. Danner, M.S. Lett, J.K. McCarron, Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in a mesic grassland, Science. 298 (2002) 2202–2205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Stoican, S. Olaru, Set-theoretic Fault-tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
D. Palazzo, Urban Ecological Design: A Process for Regenerative Places, Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
E.M. Taylor, C. Rodríguez O., J.D. Velásquez, G. Ghosh, S. Banerjee, Web Opinion Mining and Sentimental Analysis, in: J.D. Velásquez, V. Palade, L.C. Jain (Eds.), Advanced Techniques in Web Intelligence-2: Web User Browsing Behaviour and Preference Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 105–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks.

Blog post
J. Fang, Unpredictable Temperature Swings Boost Death Rates in the U.S, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Aviation: Program Aimed at High-Risk Parent Abductors Could Aid in Preventing Abductions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Ichiyama, Early goal-directed therapy in adult septic patients, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
M. Wilson, New Jersey Man Is Found Guilty on All Counts in Chelsea Bomb Attack, New York Times. (2017) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Energy, Grids and Networks
AbbreviationSustain. Energy Grids Netw.
ISSN (print)2352-4677
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles