How to format your references using the Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dehaene, S., 2002. Neuroscience. Single-neuron arithmetic. Science 297, 1652–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen, V.K., Egholm, D.L., 2013. Glaciations in response to climate variations preconditioned by evolving topography. Nature 493, 206–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Garner, E.C., Campbell, C.S., Mullins, R.D., 2004. Dynamic instability in a DNA-segregating prokaryotic actin homolog. Science 306, 1021–1025.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Breton, R.P., Kaspi, V.M., Kramer, M., McLaughlin, M.A., Lyutikov, M., Ransom, S.M., Stairs, I.H., Ferdman, R.D., Camilo, F., Possenti, A., 2008. Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar. Science 321, 104–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caltagirone, J.-P., 2015. Discrete Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Murty, M.R., 2014. Transcendental Numbers. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Majorana, E., Sasso, A., 2006. Pseudopolar reaction of hydrogen atoms, in: Bassani, G.F. (Ed.), Ettore Majorana Scientific Papers: On Occasion of the Centenary of His Birth. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 77–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Meditation may Alter Male and Female Brains Differently [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. DOD’s Full-Time, Fully Funded Graduate and Undergraduate Education Programs (No. B-175773). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardison, A., 2017. Achieving Literacy Excellence through Identifying and Utilizing High Yield Strategies (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gelles, D., de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Torch Passes At Carlyle As a Titan Steps Aside. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dehaene, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dehaene, 2002; Pedersen and Egholm, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen and Egholm, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Breton et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainability of Water Quality and Ecology
AbbreviationSustain. Water Qual. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2212-6139
Water Science and Technology

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