How to format your references using the Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilson, S.M., 2013. Professional development for science teachers. Science 340, 310–313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butterworth, B., Kovas, Y., 2013. Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all. Science 340, 300–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nava, E., Steiger, T., Röder, B., 2014. Both developmental and adult vision shape body representations. Sci. Rep. 4, 6622.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dall’Osso, F., Dominey-Howes, D., Moore, C., Summerhayes, S., Withycombe, G., 2014. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach. Sci. Rep. 4, 7401.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hines, M., 2015. Marketing implant dentistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Biswal, B., Krupinska, K., Biswal, U.C. (Eds.), 2013. Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, Including Bioenergy and Related Processes. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kato, N., 2012. Role of vitamin B6 in skin health and diseases, in: Preedy, V.R. (Ed.), Handbook of Diet, Nutrition and the Skin, Human Health Handbooks No. 1. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp. 58–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. New Species Of Pliosaur Discovered In Russia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Opportunities for Improving Computerized Civilian Payroll Processing Operations (No. FGMSD-75-15). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Antoshin, S., 2010. Modeling inflation expectations in the U.K (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fuller, T., Pérez-Peña, R., 2017. As California Fires Raced, Waiting Meant Dying. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilson, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Butterworth and Kovas, 2013; Wilson, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butterworth and Kovas, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dall’Osso et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainability of Water Quality and Ecology
AbbreviationSustain. Water Qual. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2212-6139
Water Science and Technology

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