How to format your references using the Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilmot, C.M., 2007. Biochemistry. An ancient and intimate partnership. Science 316, 379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chambers, J.Q., Roberts, D.A., 2014. Ecology: drought in the congo basin. Nature 509, 36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Healy, L.L., Cronin, J.G., Sheldon, I.M., 2014. Endometrial cells sense and react to tissue damage during infection of the bovine endometrium via interleukin 1. Sci. Rep. 4, 7060.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Byrne, M.E., Barley, R., Curtis, M., Arroyo, J.M., Dunham, M., Hudson, A., Martienssen, R.A., 2000. Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis. Nature 408, 967–971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fight, A., 2004. Understanding International Bank Risk. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Foster, A., 2006. Scanning Probe Microscopy: Atomic Scale Engineering by Forces and Currents, NanoScience and Technology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodwin, G.C., Cea, M.G., 2012. Application of Minimum Distortion Filtering to Identification of Linear Systems Having Non-uniform Sampling Period, in: Wang, L., Garnier, H. (Eds.), System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design. Springer, London, pp. 97–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Different Monkey Species Can Understand One Another’s “Languages” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. National Transportation Safety Board: Progress Made in Management Practices, Investigation Priorities, Training Center Use, and Information Security, But These Areas Continue to Need Improvement (No. GAO-08-652T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Y., 2017. Sliding Mode Observer Design for Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. At J. Crew’s Bridal Store, a Parisian Air. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilmot, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Chambers and Roberts, 2014; Wilmot, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chambers and Roberts, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Byrne et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainability of Water Quality and Ecology
AbbreviationSustain. Water Qual. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2212-6139
Water Science and Technology

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