How to format your references using the Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, M.S., 2011. The dark clouds over US astronomy. Nature 476, 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank, J., Agrawal, R.K., 2000. A ratchet-like inter-subunit reorganization of the ribosome during translocation. Nature 406, 318–322.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wender, P.A., Kee, J.-M., Warrington, J.M., 2008. Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science 320, 649–652.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hu, Q.-H., Xie, Z.-Q., Wang, X.-M., Kang, H., He, Q.-F., Zhang, P., 2013. Secondary organic aerosols over oceans via oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes from Arctic to Antarctic. Sci. Rep. 3, 2280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yalaoui, A., Chehade, H., Yalaoui, F., Amodeo, L., 2012. Optimization of Logistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Goossens, S., 2016. Memory Controllers for Mixed-Time-Criticality Systems: Architectures, Methodologies and Trade-offs, Embedded Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
García-Fernández, N., Macher, H.C., Rubio, A., Jiménez-Arriscado, P., Bernal-Bellido, C., Bellido-Díaz, M.L., Suárez-Artacho, G., Guerrero, J.M., Gómez-Bravo, M.A., Molinero, P., 2016. Detection of p53 Mutations in Circulating DNA of Transplanted Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients as a Biomarker of Tumor Recurrence, in: Gahan, P.B., Fleischhacker, M., Schmidt, B. (Eds.), Circulating Nucleic Acids in Serum and Plasma – CNAPS IX, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 25–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Simple Blood Test Could Tell You When You’re Going To Die [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Evaluation of the Office of Economic Opportunity’s Performance Contracting Experiment (No. B-130515). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karas, L.L., 2017. Information systems and technology leaders in merger and acquisition integrations (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Yoga’s Serious. Except When It’s Not. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Frank and Agrawal, 2000; Turner, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frank and Agrawal, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainability of Water Quality and Ecology
AbbreviationSustain. Water Qual. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2212-6139
Water Science and Technology

Other styles