How to format your references using the Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alberts, B., 2012. H5N1. Introduction. Science 336, 1521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domon, B., Aebersold, R., 2006. Mass spectrometry and protein analysis. Science 312, 212–217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, J., Zhu, J., Ye, H., 2004. Comment on “Tubular graphite cones.” Science 303, 766; author reply 766.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lowenstein, T.K., Timofeeff, M.N., Brennan, S.T., Hardie, L.A., Demicco, R.V., 2001. Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions. Science 294, 1086–1088.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, R., 2005. Rational Choice and Judgment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
López Basaguren, A., Escajedo San Epifanio, L. (Eds.), 2013. The Ways of Federalism in Western Countries and the Horizons of Territorial Autonomy in Spain: Volume 1. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Eadie, M.J., Vajda, F., 2016. The Older Antiepileptic Drugs, in: Vajda, F. (Ed.), Antiepileptic Drugs and Pregnancy: A Guide for Prescribers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 27–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. A 700,000-Year-Old Fossil Find Shows The Hobbits’ Ancestors Were Even Smaller [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Important Progress Made, Yet Much Work Remains to Avoid Disruption of Critical Services (No. T-AIMD-99-234). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortega, R., 2012. Effects of cultural and linguistic differences in breast cancer screening behaviors among elderly Latina women (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of the New York Times. New York Times C36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alberts, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Alberts, 2012; Domon and Aebersold, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domon and Aebersold, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Lowenstein et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainability of Water Quality and Ecology
AbbreviationSustain. Water Qual. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2212-6139
Water Science and Technology

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