How to format your references using the Surgical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Marx, ALZHEIMER’S CONGRESS: Drug Shows Promise for Advanced Disease, Science. 289 (2000) 375b–7b.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.-P. Després, I. Lemieux, Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, Nature. 444 (2006) 881–887.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.B. Hansen, X. Tao, R. MacKinnon, Structural basis of PIP2 activation of the classical inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.2, Nature. 477 (2011) 495–498.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Bai, X. Han, J. Wu, Z. Chen, L. Li, Ecosystem stability and compensatory effects in the Inner Mongolia grassland, Nature. 431 (2004) 181–184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Smith, D. Meeking, How to Succeed at the Medical Interview, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
M. Buscema, W.J. Tastle, eds., Intelligent Data Mining in Law Enforcement Analytics: New Neural Networks Applied to Real Problems, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Iltanen, Cellular Automata in Urban Spatial Modelling, in: A.J. Heppenstall, A.T. Crooks, L.M. See, M. Batty (Eds.), Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Oncology.

Blog post
J. Fang, Mice with Malaria are More Attractive to Mosquitoes, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Acquisitions: DOD’s Goals for Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems Are Ambitious, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.J. So, Coolie democracy: U.S.-China political and literary exchange, 1925-1955, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Still Standing, if Barely Upright, Cubs Face a Quick Turnaround, New York Times. (2017) SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Oncology
AbbreviationSurg. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0960-7404

Other styles