How to format your references using the Surgical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Vunjak-Novakovic, Cardiac biology: A protein for healing infarcted hearts, Nature. 525 (2015) 461–462.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.K. Reck, T.E. Graedel, Challenges in metal recycling, Science. 337 (2012) 690–695.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.N. Loh, J.E. Bauer, E.R.M. Druffel, Variable ageing and storage of dissolved organic components in the open ocean, Nature. 430 (2004) 877–881.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Kuhnert, M.R. Mancuso, A. Shamloo, H.-T. Wang, V. Choksi, M. Florek, H. Su, M. Fruttiger, W.L. Young, S.C. Heilshorn, C.J. Kuo, Essential regulation of CNS angiogenesis by the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR124, Science. 330 (2010) 985–989.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.W. Vallin, The Elements of Cantor Sets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
R.E. Hall, ed., The Melanin Millennium: Skin Color as 21st Century International Discourse, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
W.J. Chisum, Crime Reconstruction and Evidence Dynamics, in: A. Mozayani, C. Noziglia (Eds.), The Forensic Laboratory Handbook Procedures and Practice, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2011: pp. 105–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Oncology.

Blog post
J. Davis, First-Ever DNA Analysis Of Ancient Phoenician People, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Needs Enhanced Oversight and Performance Measures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Jackson, A Bibliometric Analysis of Green Building Literature, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, Decline in Oil Prices Lands on Government Workers as Saudi Arabia Cuts Paychecks, New York Times. (2016) A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Oncology
AbbreviationSurg. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0960-7404

Other styles