How to format your references using the Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.L. Innerarity, Structural biology. LDL receptor’s beta-propeller displaces LDL, Science. 298 (2002) 2337–2339.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Miyake, R. Kalluri, Cardiac biology: Cell plasticity helps hearts to repair, Nature. 514 (2014) 575–576.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Suma, Y. Sumiyoshi, Y. Endo, The rotational spectrum and structure of the HOOO radical, Science. 308 (2005) 1885–1886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Dery, P. Dalal, Ł. Cywiński, L.J. Sham, Spin-based logic in semiconductors for reconfigurable large-scale circuits, Nature. 447 (2007) 573–576.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Hey, Neonatal Formulary 6, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
T. Moore, S. Shenoi, eds., Critical Infrastructure Protection IV: Fourth Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection, ICCIP 2010, Washington, DC, USA, March 15-17, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
K.-S. Hsu, M.-T. Lin, C.-J. Tong, The Measurement of Cyclic Creep Behavior in Copper Thin Film Using Microtensile Testing, in: T. Proulx (Ed.), MEMS and Nanotechnology, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Look, Your Eyes Are Wired Backwards: Here’s Why, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Use of Computers at Naval Laboratories, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.S. Tucker, Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of in vitro selected artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Hanc, Flattery Will Get You Everywhere, New York Times. (2016) F2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Science
AbbreviationSurf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0039-6028
ScopeMaterials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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