How to format your references using the Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.E. Wellems, Plasmodium chloroquine resistance and the search for a replacement antimalarial drug, Science. 298 (2002) 124–126.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.P. Yoon, E.N. Jacobsen, Privileged chiral catalysts, Science. 299 (2003) 1691–1693.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.G. Victor, R. Gerlagh, G. Baiocchi, Climate policy. Getting serious about categorizing countries, Science. 345 (2014) 34–36.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Guo, J. Gao, F. Li, J. Wang, Evidence of horizontal transfer of non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons facilitated by host-parasite interactions, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Rios Insua, F. Ruggeri, M.P. Wiper, Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Process Models: Ruggeri/Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Process Models, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
J. Liberty, Pro Windows 8.1 Development with XAML and C#, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Grimaldi, G. Bontron, P. Balayn, Hydraulic Modelling for Rhône River Operation, in: P. Gourbesville, J. Cunge, G. Caignaert (Eds.), Advances in Hydroinformatics: SIMHYDRO 2012 – New Frontiers of Simulation, Springer, Singapore, 2014: pp. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Top 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Science, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Observations on FAA’s Air Traffic Control Modernization Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.S. Vail, The gift of noetic image: Spontaneous imagery and psychological well-being in women with breast cancer, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, Man Arrested in Strangling of a Jogger in Queens, New York Times. (2017) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Science
AbbreviationSurf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0039-6028
ScopeMaterials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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