# How to format your references using the Student BMJ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Student BMJ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Ritchie MG. Evolution. Feathers, females, and fathers. Science 2007;318:54–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Villaume MT, Baran PS. Organic chemistry: Reactivity tamed one bond at a time. Nature 2014;513:324–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Liljas A, Ehrenberg M, Åqvist J. Comment on ‘The mechanism for activation of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome’. Science 2011;333:37; author reply 37.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Li M, Ding J, Gu H, et al. Facilitated diffusion of acetonitrile revealed by quantitative breath analysis using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Sci Rep 2013;3:1205.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Lueder E. 3D Displays. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2011.
An edited book
1
Brown JM, Mehta MP, Nieder C, editors. Multimodal Concepts for Integration of Cytotoxic Drugs. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Kaneko M, Izumi H, Kitahara K, et al. A Simple Method of the ${\rm\kern-.15em T\kern-.1667em\lower.7ex\hbox{E}\kern-.125emX}$ Surface Drawing Suitable for Teaching Materials with the Aid of CAS. In: Bubak M, Albada GD van, Dongarra J, et al., eds. Computational Science – ICCS 2008: 8th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2008. 35–45.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Student BMJ.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Promising Rabies Treatment Cures Mice After Symptoms Appear. IFLScience. 2015.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Advanced Automation System: Implications of Problems and Recent Changes. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1994.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Rodriguez SG. Devotion to land: The Virgin Mary and the Mudejar in the post-conquest program of Alfonso X of Castile, 1252–1284. 2010.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Kishkovsky S. Putin to Take Helm of Party After Leaving The Presidency. New York Times. 2008;:A11.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].