How to format your references using the Spine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Yang LH. Periodical cicadas as resource pulses in North American forests. Science 2004;306:1565–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fry CJ, Peterson CL. Transcription. Unlocking the gates to gene expression. Science 2002;295:1847–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ. Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms. Nature 2001;411:1068–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Noad MJ, Cato DH, Bryden MM, et al. Cultural revolution in whale songs. Nature 2000;408:537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Graham L. Complying with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Koukkari WL. Introducing Biological Rhythms: A Primer on the Temporal Organization of Life, with Implications for Health, Society, Reproduction and the Natural Environment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chevalier-Boisvert M, Hendren L, Verbrugge C. Optimizing Matlab through Just-In-Time Specialization. In: Gupta R, ed. Compiler Construction: 19th International Conference, CC 2010, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-28, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:46–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spine.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Earth Doesn’t Get Weirder Than The Bubbling Springs Of Ethiopia. IFLScience. Available at https://www.iflscience.com/environment/earth-doesnt-get-weirder-bubbling-lakes-ethiopia/. 2016, Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. General Government Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments. AA-97-28(1); Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; January 2, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bankapura S. Packet adaptive routing in communication network. Doctoral Dissertation; California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. Into a World of Fantasy, Where the Sorcerers Take Center Stage. New York Times, January 6, 2017, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSpine
AbbreviationSpine (Phila. Pa. 1976)
ISSN (print)0362-2436
ISSN (online)1528-1159
ScopeClinical Neurology
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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