How to format your references using the South African Journal of Chemical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Chemical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles, S., 2009. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors? Science 324, 1293–1298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Page, S.L., Hawley, R.S., 2003. Chromosome choreography: the meiotic ballet. Science 301, 785–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vlemmings, W.H.T., Diamond, P.J., Imai, H., 2006. A magnetically collimated jet from an evolved star. Nature 440, 58–60.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rupert, T.J., Gianola, D.S., Gan, Y., Hemker, K.J., 2009. Experimental observations of stress-driven grain boundary migration. Science 326, 1686–1690.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, C.L., Narayanamurthy, V., Simha, K.R.Y., 2016. Applied Impact Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bielza, C., Salmerón, A., Alonso-Betanzos, A., Hidalgo, J.I., Martínez, L., Troncoso, A., Corchado, E., Corchado, J.M. (Eds.), 2013. Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 15th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2013, Madrid, Spain, September 17-20, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rebeiro, C., Mukhopadhyay, D., Bhattacharya, S., 2015. Advanced Time-Driven Cache Attacks on Block Ciphers, in: Mukhopadhyay, D., Bhattacharya, S. (Eds.), Timing Channels in Cryptography: A Micro-Architectural Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 71–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Chemical Engineering.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Company That Upped Drug Price By 5,000% Reports $14.6 Million Loss In Three Months [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Distance Education: Growth in Distance Education Programs and Implications for Federal Education Policy (No. GAO-02-1125T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crockett, W., 2017. Student Transitions Into the Full-Time Virtual High School Setting (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2016. White Guys, Grappling With a New Reality. New York Times AR115.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowles, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bowles, 2009; Page and Hawley, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Page and Hawley, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Rupert et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Chemical Engineering
AbbreviationS. Afr. J. Chem. Eng.
ISSN (print)1026-9185

Other styles