How to format your references using the Solar Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solar Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhou, M., 2013. Materials science. Exceptional properties by design. Science 339, 1161–1162.
A journal article with 2 authors
England, P.C., Katz, R.F., 2010. Global systematics of arc volcano position. Nature 468, E6-7; discussion E7-8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanaka, Y., Okada, Y., Hirokawa, N., 2005. FGF-induced vesicular release of Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid in leftward nodal flow is critical for left-right determination. Nature 435, 172–177.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Varcoe, B.T., Brattke, S., Weidinger, M., Walther, H., 2000. Preparing pure photon number states of the radiation field. Nature 403, 743–746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coenen, T., 2008. Essentials of Corporate Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Levin, Z., Cotton, W.R. (Eds.), 2009. Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation: A Scientific Review. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hui, P., Buza, N., 2015. Uterine Mesenchymal Tumors, in: Buza, N. (Ed.), Atlas of Intraoperative Frozen Section Diagnosis in Gynecologic Pathology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 95–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solar Energy.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. FDA Approves “Female Viagra” Pill [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. School Meal Programs: Improved Reviews, Federal Guidance, and Data Collection Needed to Address Counting and Claiming Errors (No. GAO-09-814). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sprague, T., 2012. Cultural perspectives among children of Guatemalan Maya immigrants in Lake Worth, Florida (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M., 2015. Feast of Championships. New York Times LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhou, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (England and Katz, 2010; Zhou, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (England and Katz, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Varcoe et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolar Energy
AbbreviationSol. Energy
ISSN (print)0038-092X
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
General Materials Science

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