How to format your references using the Solar Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solar Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N., 2015. Electrochemistry: Liquid assets. Nature 526, S98-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goddéris, Y., Donnadieu, Y., 2008. Carbon cycling and snowball Earth. Nature 456, E8; author reply E9-10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao, Y.C., Jin, R., Mirkin, C.A., 2002. Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection. Science 297, 1536–1540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, S., Wang, Jialing, Zhu, D., Wang, N., Gao, Q., Chen, W., Tang, H., Wang, Junzhi, Zhang, X., Liu, H., Rao, Z., Wang, X., 2018. Cryo-EM structure of a herpesvirus capsid at 3.1 Å. Science 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birla, R., 2014. Introduction to Tissue Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Başoğlu, B. (Ed.), 2016. The Effects of Financial Crises on the Binding Force of Contracts - Renegotiation, Rescission or Revision, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Ius Comparatum - Global Studies in Comparative Law. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hadi, A.A.R., Wan Daud, W.M.F., Ibrahim, N.H., 2011. The Development of History Educational Game as a Revision Tool for Malaysia School Education, in: Zaman, H.B., Robinson, P., Petrou, M., Olivier, P., Shih, T.K., Velastin, S., Nyström, I. (Eds.), Visual Informatics: Sustaining Research and Innovations: Second International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2011, Selangor, Malaysia, November 9-11, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solar Energy.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. New Horizons’ Next Target Appears To Be Redder Than Pluto [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. Use of Department of Education Title III Grant Funds by the International Institute of the Americas of World University (No. HRD-84-20). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crawford, M.J., 2009. Empire’s experts: The politics of knowledge in Spain’s royal monopoly of quina (1751–1808) (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Justices to See Philip Morris Case a Third Time. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Goddéris and Donnadieu, 2008; Savage, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goddéris and Donnadieu, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolar Energy
AbbreviationSol. Energy
ISSN (print)0038-092X
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
General Materials Science

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