How to format your references using the Solar Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solar Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gunawardena, J., 2010. Systems biology. Biological systems theory. Science 328, 581–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butterworth, B., Kovas, Y., 2013. Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all. Science 340, 300–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Butterworth, B., Varma, S., Laurillard, D., 2011. Dyscalculia: from brain to education. Science 332, 1049–1053.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Körtzinger, A., Schimanski, J., Send, U., Wallace, D., 2004. The ocean takes a deep breath. Science 306, 1337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazimierczuk, M., 2013. High-Frequency Magnetic Components. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kleinbaum, D.G., 2012. Survival Analysis: A Self-Learning Text, Third Edition, Statistics for Biology and Health. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, P.V., 2012. Groups and Automata: A Perfect Match, in: Kutrib, M., Moreira, N., Reis, R. (Eds.), Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems: 14th International Workshop, DCFS 2012, Braga, Portugal, July 23-25, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 50–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solar Energy.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Proxima Centauri Has A Starspot Cycle Just Like Our Sun [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Space Acquisitions: Improvements Needed in Space Systems Acquisitions and Keys to Achieving Them (No. GAO-06-626T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grannis, K.S., 2010. Secular spiritual quests in modern American novels, 1922–1960 (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. If the Pay’s “Confidential,” It Just Disappeared. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gunawardena, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Butterworth and Kovas, 2013; Gunawardena, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butterworth and Kovas, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Körtzinger et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolar Energy
AbbreviationSol. Energy
ISSN (print)0038-092X
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
General Materials Science

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