How to format your references using the Sociological Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociological Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, Herb. 2015. “Beauty.” Nature 526(7572):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butterworth, Brian, and Yulia Kovas. 2013. “Understanding Neurocognitive Developmental Disorders Can Improve Education for All.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340(6130):300–305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laine, Elsi-Mari, Heinz-Peter Breuer, and Jyrki Piilo. 2014. “Nonlocal Memory Effects Allow Perfect Teleportation with Mixed States.” Scientific Reports 4:4620.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, Jing-Ling, Xiang-Jun Ye, Chunfeng Wu, Hong-Yi Su, Adán Cabello, L. C. Kwek, and C. H. Oh. 2013. “All-versus-Nothing Proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.” Scientific Reports 3:2143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belmont, David P. 2011. Managing Hedge Fund Risk and Financing. 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01, Solaris South Tower, Singapore 138628: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Percec, Virgil, ed. 2013. Hierarchical Macromolecular Structures: 60 Years after the Staudinger Nobel Prize II. Vol. 262. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chae, Seong Wook, Kun Chang Lee, and Min Hee Hahn. 2013. “Exploring the Revelation Process for Individual Creativity Based on Exploitation and Exploration: A Physiological Experiment Approach.” Pp. 61–78 in Digital Creativity: Individuals, Groups, and Organizations, Integrated Series in Information Systems, edited by K. C. Lee. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociological Theory.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Ebola Evolved To Become More Deadly During The Recent Outbreak.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: A Testing Guide (Exposure Draft) (Superseded by AIMD-10.1.21). AIMD-10.1.21. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escalante-Guerra, Mery. 2009. “Policy Analysis Proposal Regarding the Adoptions and Safe Family Act of 1997.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alderman, Liz. 2013. “Romanian’s Tale Has Art World Fearing Worst.” New York Times, July 19, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brody 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brody 2015; Butterworth and Kovas 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butterworth and Kovas 2013)
  • Three authors: (Laine, Breuer, and Piilo 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociological Theory
ISSN (print)0735-2751
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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