How to format your references using the Sociological Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociological Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyer, Pascal. 2008. “Being Human: Religion: Bound to Believe?” Nature 455(7216):1038–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakosky, B. M. and R. J. Phillips. 2001. “Mars’ Volatile and Climate History.” Nature 412(6843):237–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaaret, Philip, Melanie G. Simet, and Cornelia C. Lang. 2006. “The Orbital Period of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source in M82.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5760):491.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jósvay, Katalin, Zoltán Winter, Róbert L. Katona, László Pecze, Annamária Marton, Andrea Buhala, Gerda Szakonyi, Zoltán Oláh, and Csaba Vizler. 2014. “Besides Neuro-Imaging, the Thy1-YFP Mouse Could Serve for Visualizing Experimental Tumours, Inflammation and Wound-Healing.” Scientific Reports 4:6776.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemberger, Pirmin and Médéric Morel. 2012. Managing Complexity of Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bebis, George, Richard Boyle, Bahram Parvin, Darko Koracin, Baoxin Li, Fatih Porikli, Victor Zordan, James Klosowski, Sabine Coquillart, Xun Luo, Min Chen, and David Gotz, eds. 2013. Advances in Visual Computing: 9th International Symposium, ISVC 2013, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece, July 29-31, 2013. Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 8034. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blake, Jamilia J., Danielle M. Smith, Miner P. Marchbanks, Allison L. Seibert, Steve M. Wood, and Eun Sook Kim. 2016. “Does Student–Teacher Racial/Ethnic Match Impact Black Students’ Discipline Risk? A Test of the Cultural Synchrony Hypothesis.” Pp. 79–98 in Inequality in School Discipline: Research and Practice to Reduce Disparities, edited by R. J. Skiba, K. Mediratta, and M. K. Rausch. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociological Theory.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “A Parasitic Infection Called Crypto Is On The Rise In US Swimming Pools.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. Restructured Neighborhood Youth Corps Out-of-School Program in Urban Areas. B-130515. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day, Kari C. 2017. “CPA Perceptions of Human Skills for Professional Competency Development Needs.” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2016. “Paralyzed Monkeys Can Walk Again With Wireless Brain-Spine Connection.” New York Times, November 9, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyer 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Boyer 2008; Jakosky and Phillips 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jakosky and Phillips 2001)
  • Three authors: (Kaaret, Simet, and Lang 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jósvay et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociological Theory
ISSN (print)0735-2751
ScopeSociology and Political Science

Other styles