How to format your references using the Sociological Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociological Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diringer, Elliot. 2011. “Climate Policy: Letting Go of Kyoto.” Nature 479(7373):291–92.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guydosh, Nicholas R., and Steven M. Block. 2009. “Direct Observation of the Binding State of the Kinesin Head to the Microtubule.” Nature 461(7260):125–28.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal, Tanvi, Peter Schu, and Guruprasad R. Medigeshi. 2013. “Adaptor Protein Complexes-1 and 3 Are Involved at Distinct Stages of Flavivirus Life-Cycle.” Scientific Reports 3:1813.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, Yuan, Qi Tong, Zhongxia Li, Jinhai Tian, Yizhi Wang, Feng Su, Yongsheng Wang, Jun Liu, and Yong Zhang. 2014. “Improved Site-Specific Recombinase-Based Method to Produce Selectable Marker- and Vector-Backbone-Free Transgenic Cells.” Scientific Reports 4:4240.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye, Tony. 2008. Building the Reflective Healthcare Organisation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Berg, Björn. 2008. Plant Litter: Decomposition, Humus Formation, Carbon Sequestration. edited by C. McClaugherty. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagtendonk, Alfred J., Philip Verhagen, Steven Soetens, Karen Jeneson, and Maurice de Kleijn. 2009. “Past in Place: The Role of Geo-ICT in Present-Day Archaeology.” Pp. 59–86 in Geospatial Technology and the Role of Location in Science, GeoJournal Library, edited by H. J. Scholten, R. van de Velde, and N. van Manen. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociological Theory.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Awesome Time-Lapse Of Biggest Sunspot In 24 Years.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. TV Marti: Costs and Compliance With Broadcast Standards and International Agreements. NSIAD-92-199. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Connelly, Julianna. 2010. “A Tradition of Excellence Transitions to the 21 St Century: Hungarian Mathematics Education, 1988-2008.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2002. “A Princeton Senior Is Setting the Bar Higher.” New York Times, May 7, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diringer 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Diringer 2011; Guydosh and Block 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guydosh and Block 2009)
  • Three authors: (Agrawal, Schu, and Medigeshi 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociological Theory
ISSN (print)0735-2751
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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