How to format your references using the Social Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N., 2012. Technology: the taste of things to come. Nature 486, S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
di Bernardo, D., Murray, A., 2000. Explaining the T-wave shape in the ECG. Nature 403, 40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Senghas, A., Kita, S., Ozyürek, A., 2004. Children creating core properties of language: evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. Science 305, 1779–1782.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barnett, B.P., Hwang, Y., Taylor, M.S., Kirchner, H., Pfluger, P.T., Bernard, V., Lin, Y.-Y., Bowers, E.M., Mukherjee, C., Song, W.-J., Longo, P.A., Leahy, D.J., Hussain, M.A., Tschöp, M.H., Boeke, J.D., Cole, P.A., 2010. Glucose and weight control in mice with a designed ghrelin O-acyltransferase inhibitor. Science 330, 1689–1692.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waller, F.J., 2011. Writing Chemistry Patents and Intellectual Property. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Moyal, A., 2013. Phonetic Search Methods for Large Speech Databases, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
van den Bosch, D.D., van der Seijs, M.V., de Klerk, D., 2014. Validation of Blocked-Force Transfer Path Analysis with Compensation for Test Bench Dynamics, in: Allen, M., Mayes, R., Rixen, D. (Eds.), Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Networks.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. “The Hare Psychopathy Checklist”: The Test That Will Tell You If Someone Is A Sociopath [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Medicare and the Delivery of Health Services Are at Risk (No. T-AIMD-99-89). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teater, M.R., 2009. Reentry and reintegration: A grant proposal for formerly incarcerated women (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. The Russian Revolution, Without Fiction. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (di Bernardo and Murray, 2000; Savage, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (di Bernardo and Murray, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Barnett et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Networks
AbbreviationSoc. Networks
ISSN (print)0378-8733
ScopeGeneral Psychology
General Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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