How to format your references using the Social Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E., 2003. Success in an uneven market. Nature 424, 597.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff, S., Dillin, A., 2013. Ageing: beneficial miscommunication. Nature 497, 442–443.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lobell, D.B., Schlenker, W., Costa-Roberts, J., 2011. Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science 333, 616–620.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Autumn, K., Liang, Y.A., Hsieh, S.T., Zesch, W., Chan, W.P., Kenny, T.W., Fearing, R., Full, R.J., 2000. Adhesive force of a single gecko foot-hair. Nature 405, 681–685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beiser, L., 2005. Unified Optical Scanning Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zeimpekis, V., Ichoua, S., Minis, I. (Eds.), 2013. Humanitarian and Relief Logistics: Research Issues, Case Studies and Future Trends, Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gallagher, A.G., Matt Ritter, E., 2007. Virtual Reality: Objective Assessment, Education, and Training, in: Satava, R.M., Gaspari, A., Lorenzo, N.D. (Eds.), Emerging Technologies in Surgery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Networks.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Patients With Female Doctors Are Less Likely To Die Or Be Readmitted [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. VA Student Financial Aid: Potential Effect of Providing Education Tax Benefit Eligibility to Students Receiving VA Assistance (No. HEHS-00-40R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kotch, S., 2009. Unduly harsh and unworkably rigid: The death penalty in North Carolina, 1910–1961 (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., 2017. Black Detectives in New York Say Cronyism Cost Promotions. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Russo, 2003; Wolff and Dillin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolff and Dillin, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Autumn et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Networks
AbbreviationSoc. Networks
ISSN (print)0378-8733
ScopeGeneral Psychology
General Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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