How to format your references using the Social Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bürger, G., 2007. Comment on “The spatial extent of 20th-century warmth in the context of the past 1200 years.” Science 316, 1844; author reply 1844.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brumfiel, G., Marris, E., 2006. Physics wins the US budget race. Nature 439, 644–645.
A journal article with 3 authors
García-Ruiz, J.M., Melero-García, E., Hyde, S.T., 2009. Morphogenesis of self-assembled nanocrystalline materials of barium carbonate and silica. Science 323, 362–365.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Atabaki, A.H., Moazeni, S., Pavanello, F., Gevorgyan, H., Notaros, J., Alloatti, L., Wade, M.T., Sun, C., Kruger, S.A., Meng, H., Al Qubaisi, K., Wang, I., Zhang, B., Khilo, A., Baiocco, C.V., Popović, M.A., Stojanović, V.M., Ram, R.J., 2018. Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip. Nature 556, 349–354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armajani, J., 2011. Modern Islamist Movements. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Vega, L. (Ed.), 2014. Empires, Post-Coloniality and Interculturality: New Challenges for Comparative Education, The CESE Series. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Antoldi, F., Cerrato, D., Depperu, D., 2011. Empirical Analysis of Nine Export Consortia of SMEs in Morocco, Tunisia, Peru and Uruguay, in: Cerrato, D., Depperu, D. (Eds.), Export Consortia in Developing Countries: Successful Management of Cooperation Among SMEs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 59–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Networks.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Pillars Of Creation - A Glimpse Into How Stars Are Born [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Earth Observing System: Funding Requirements for NASA’s EOSDIS (No. AIMD-95-153FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salam, S., 2017. Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Surico, J., 2017. Queens Woman Killed in Attack by Her Dog. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bürger, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel and Marris, 2006; Bürger, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brumfiel and Marris, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Atabaki et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Networks
AbbreviationSoc. Networks
ISSN (print)0378-8733
ScopeGeneral Psychology
General Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles