How to format your references using the Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Smith, Screening for drug discovery: the leading question, Nature. 418 (2002) 453–459.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Boolchand, W.J. Bresser, Mobile silver ions and glass formation in solid electrolytes, Nature. 410 (2001) 1070–1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z.W. Pan, Z.R. Dai, Z.L. Wang, Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides, Science. 291 (2001) 1947–1949.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Ogata, Y. Kanno, Y. Itoh, H. Tsugawa, M. Suzuki, Plant biochemistry: anthocyanin biosynthesis in roses, Nature. 435 (2005) 757–758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.J. Berthold, M. Binnewies, Chemisches Grundpraktikum, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
K. Kindscher, ed., Echinacea: Herbal Medicine with a Wild History, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M.F. Dennedy, J. Fox, T.R. Finneran, Developing Privacy Policies, in: J. Fox, T.R. Finneran (Eds.), The Privacy Engineer’s Manifesto: Getting from Policy to Code to QA to Value, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2014: pp. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, How The Brain Can 'Tune” To Specific Smells, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Coast Guard’s Marine Safety Program Staffing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W.E. Koenig, Leadership for the whole in the mythic field of C. G. Jung’s unconscious processes, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Barnes, ‘La La Land’ Leads the Race for the Globes, New York Times. (2016) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSimulation Modelling Practice and Theory
AbbreviationSimul. Model. Pract. Theory
ISSN (print)1569-190X
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Modelling and Simulation

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