How to format your references using the Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Roberts, HIV/AIDS in America. Introduction, Science. 337 (2012) 167.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Hwang, E.R.M. Druffel, Lipid-like material as the source of the uncharacterized organic carbon in the ocean?, Science. 299 (2003) 881–884.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Cobaleda, W. Jochum, M. Busslinger, Conversion of mature B cells into T cells by dedifferentiation to uncommitted progenitors, Nature. 449 (2007) 473–477.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.H. Poole, P.L. Tyack, A.S. Stoeger-Horwath, S. Watwood, Animal behaviour: elephants are capable of vocal learning, Nature. 434 (2005) 455–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Dubil, Financial Engineering and Arbitrage in the Financial Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Y. Li, Interconnected Power Systems: Wide-Area Dynamic Monitoring and Control Applications, 1st ed. 2016, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Le Pécheur, G. Morrow, R.M. Tanguay, Mortalin and Drosophila DmHsp22: Two Mitochondrial Chaperones Regulating Aging and Carcinogenesis, in: S.C. Kaul, R. Wadhwa (Eds.), Mortalin Biology: Life, Stress and Death, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 83–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory.

Blog post
T. Hale, Company That Upped Drug Price By 5,000% Reports $14.6 Million Loss In Three Months, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Expenditures for Consulting Services Under Two Federally Funded Education Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.T. Hester, Impact of geomorphic structures on hyporheic exchange, temperature, and ecological processes in streams, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Cooper, G. Kourlas, Rockettes’ Big Show For Spring Is Killed, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSimulation Modelling Practice and Theory
AbbreviationSimul. Model. Pract. Theory
ISSN (print)1569-190X
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Modelling and Simulation

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