How to format your references using the Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.R. Morris, Astronomy. Glimpsing matter at the brink, Science. 304 (2004) 689–692.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Raiborg, H. Stenmark, The ESCRT machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins, Nature. 458 (2009) 445–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Vannucchi, F. Remitti, G. Bettelli, Geological record of fluid flow and seismogenesis along an erosive subducting plate boundary, Nature. 451 (2008) 699–703.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Wexler, F. Panerai, I. Lamouret, J. Droulez, Self-motion and the perception of stationary objects, Nature. 409 (2001) 85–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.A. Klugman, H.H. Panjer, G.E. Willmot, Loss Models: Further Topics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
X.-Z. Yuan, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in PEM Fuel Cells: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer, London, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Baradaran Hashemi, A. Shakery, H. Faili, Creating a Persian-English Comparable Corpus, in: M. Agosti, N. Ferro, C. Peters, M. de Rijke, A. Smeaton (Eds.), Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access Evaluation: International Conference of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2010, Padua, Italy, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, What Is The Absolute Limit For Human Athletes? Here’s The Science.., IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, School-Linked Human Services: A Comprehensive Strategy for Aiding Students at Risk of School Failure, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Z. Eldridge, The Empowerment of a Forgotten Population, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, After Election, More New Yorkers Are Telling Volunteer Groups, ‘I Can Help.,’ New York Times. (2017) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSimulation Modelling Practice and Theory
AbbreviationSimul. Model. Pract. Theory
ISSN (print)1569-190X
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Modelling and Simulation

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