How to format your references using the Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Toomre, Solar physics. Order amidst turbulence, Science. 296 (2002) 64–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.E. Eiben, J. Smith, From evolutionary computation to the evolution of things, Nature. 521 (2015) 476–482.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Faller, M. Niederweis, G.E. Schulz, The structure of a mycobacterial outer-membrane channel, Science. 303 (2004) 1189–1192.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.C. Ekiert, G. Bhabha, M.-A. Elsliger, R.H.E. Friesen, M. Jongeneelen, M. Throsby, J. Goudsmit, I.A. Wilson, Antibody recognition of a highly conserved influenza virus epitope, Science. 324 (2009) 246–251.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.R. Howe, Marriages & Families in the 21st Century, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
G. Dallenbach-Hellweg, Color Atlas of Histopathology of the Cervix Uteri, 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Mathis, K. Sauer, Historical Introduction to Photosystem I: The Discovery of the A1 and A2(Fx?) Acceptors by Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopy, in: J.H. Golbeck (Ed.), Photosystem I: The Light-Driven Plastocyanin:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006: pp. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, We Now Know Why Pluto Has A Heart, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Upcoming Transition: GAO’s Efforts to Assist the 111th Congress and the Next Administration, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Kuls, Single item versus multiple items: An examination of validity and the impact of mood in measuring constructs, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, Linking History and Fortunes of a City and a Team, New York Times. (2012) A29B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSimulation Modelling Practice and Theory
AbbreviationSimul. Model. Pract. Theory
ISSN (print)1569-190X
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Modelling and Simulation

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