How to format your references using the Sexually Transmitted Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. The new networking nexus. Nature. 2008 Feb 21;451(7181):1024–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bilham R, Gaur V. Geophysics. Buildings as weapons of mass destruction. Science. 2013 Aug 9;341(6146):618–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suzuki N, Nishiura M, Wakatsuki Y. Isolation and structural characterization of 1-zirconacyclopent-3-yne, five-membered cyclic alkynes. Science. 2002 Jan 25;295(5555):660–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Seo H, Ahn S, Kim J, Lee YA, Chung KH, Jeon KJ. Multi-resistive reduced graphene oxide diode with reversible surface electrochemical reaction induced carrier control. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 10;4:5642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minns P, Elliott I. FSM-Based Digital Design Using Verilog HDL. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Montani S, Jain LC, editors. Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications - I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. X, 226 p. 107 illus., 3 illus. in color. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 305).
A chapter in an edited book
Christopher C, Hussein WMA, Wang Z. On the Integrability of Lotka–Volterra Equations: An Update. In: Toni B, editor. Mathematical Sciences with Multidisciplinary Applications: In Honor of Professor Christiane Rousseau And In Recognition of the Mathematics for Planet Earth Initiative. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 79–89. (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Blog post
Luntz S. Crowd Sourced Science To Revive A Space Probe. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Energy Research: Opportunities Exist to Recover Federal Investment in Technology Development Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Jun. Report No.: RCED-96-141.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huff HK. Thumb Twiddle Glossolalia: The Soumage [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain JR. Self-Driving Cars Might Need Standards, but Whose? New York Times. 2017 Feb 23;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSexually Transmitted Diseases
AbbreviationSex. Transm. Dis.
ISSN (print)0148-5717
ISSN (online)1537-4521
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles