How to format your references using the Sexually Transmitted Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winful HG. Optics (communication arising): mechanism for “superluminal” tunnelling. Nature. 2003 Aug 7;424(6949):638; discussion 638.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mitchell-Olds T, Knight CA. Evolution. Chaperones as buffering agents? Science. 2002 Jun 28;296(5577):2348–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelkmans L, Püntener D, Helenius A. Local actin polymerization and dynamin recruitment in SV40-induced internalization of caveolae. Science. 2002 Apr 19;296(5567):535–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tomita J, Nakajima M, Kondo T, Iwasaki H. No transcription-translation feedback in circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation. Science. 2005 Jan 14;307(5707):251–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sizer A, Balachandar C, Biswas N, Foon R, Griffiths A, Hodgett S, et al. Part 2 MRCOG: Single Best Answer Questions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Björkdahl A, Chaban N, Leslie J, Masselot A, editors. Importing EU Norms: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Findings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 262 p. (United Nations University Series on Regionalism; vol. 8).
A chapter in an edited book
Lee M-C, Cho S-B. A Recurrent Neural Network with Non-gesture Rejection Model for Recognizing Gestures with Smartphone Sensors. In: Maji P, Ghosh A, Murty MN, Ghosh K, Pal SK, editors. Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence: 5th International Conference, PReMI 2013, Kolkata, India, December 10-14, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 40–6. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Does Size Really Matter? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automated Systems: Legislative Branch Opportunity for Sharing Payroll/Personnel Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: IMTEC-89-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norton S. The effects of leadership-efficacy and personality on reactions to stress [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. P.S. Jerusalem. New York Times. 2017 Mar 16;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSexually Transmitted Diseases
AbbreviationSex. Transm. Dis.
ISSN (print)0148-5717
ISSN (online)1537-4521
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles