How to format your references using the Seminars in Arthroplasty citation style
This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Arthroplasty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.
Using reference management software
Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:
The citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
The style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.
Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.
Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.
A journal article with 1 author
Check E. Alternative therapies leave US commission divided. Nature 2002;416:355.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang WY, Gruebele M. Folding at the speed limit. Nature 2003;423:193–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marinova MM, Aharonson O, Asphaug E. Mega-impact formation of the Mars hemispheric dichotomy. Nature 2008;453:1216–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ni M, Zhang W-Z, Qiu J-R, Liu F, Li M, Zhang Y-J, et al. Association of ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. Sci Rep 2014;4:4112.
Books and book chapters
Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.
An authored book
Meier HB, Marthinsen JE, Gantenbein PA. Swiss Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Kowaliw T, Bredeche N, Doursat R, editors. Growing Adaptive Machines: Combining Development and Learning in Artificial Neural Networks. vol. 557. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Affenzeller M, Beham A, Kofler M, Kronberger G, Wagner SA, Winkler S. Metaheuristic Optimization. In: Buchberger B, Affenzeller M, Ferscha A, Haller M, Jebelean T, Klement EP, et al., editors. Hagenberg Research, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 103–55.
Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Arthroplasty.
This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Interim Report on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.
Theses and dissertations
Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.
Parihar R. Characterization of the Natural Killer Cell Cytokine Response to Antibody-Coated Tumor Cells. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2004.
News paper articles
Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Walsh MW. California Debt Higher Than Earlier Estimates, a Task Force Reports. New York Times 2012:A18.
References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:
This sentence cites one reference . This sentence cites two references [1,2]. This sentence cites four references [1–4].