How to format your references using the Seminars in Arthroplasty citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Arthroplasty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Regalbuto JR. Engineering. Cellulosic biofuels--got gasoline? Science 2009;325:822–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tseng C-K, Cheng S-C. Both catalytic steps of nuclear pre-mRNA splicing are reversible. Science 2008;320:1782–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rabitz HA, Hsieh MM, Rosenthal CM. Quantum optimally controlled transition landscapes. Science 2004;303:1998–2001.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hou S-Y, Sheng Y-B, Feng G-R, Long G-L. Experimental optimal single qubit purification in an NMR quantum information processor. Sci Rep 2014;4:6857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fink JK. Metallized and Magnetic Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Boehm T, Takahama Y, editors. Thymic Development and Selection of T Lymphocytes. vol. 373. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Pronoza E, Yagunova E. Low-Level Features for Paraphrase Identification. In: Sidorov G, Galicia-Haro SN, editors. Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 14th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2015, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, October 25-31, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 59–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Arthroplasty.

Blog post
Andrew E. Jaguar Attacks Caiman. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Ka-Band Satellite Application and Licensing Procedure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindeboom TN. A new home for transitioning youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc J. Straight From a Boomer’s Attic. New York Times 2017:F8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Arthroplasty
AbbreviationSemin. Arthroplasty
ISSN (print)1045-4527
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles