How to format your references using the Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander RM. Obituary: Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (1915-2007). Nature 2007;446:744.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koch C, Reid RC. Neuroscience: Observatories of the mind. Nature 2012;483:397–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kashlinsky A, Odenwald S, Hogan CJ. Looking behind the stars. Science 2000;289:246–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lorenz T, Hofmann M, Grüninger M, Freimuth A, Uhrig GS, Dumm M, et al. Evidence for spin-charge separation in quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors. Nature 2002;418:614–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston M. Powell-Smith & Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2008.
An edited book
Gullo A, Lumb PD, editors. Intensive and Critical Care Medicine: Reflections, Recommendations and Perspectives. Milano: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin TY, Xiao Y, Yang C, Liu X, Li BH, Guo L, et al. Manufacturing Capability Service Modeling, Management and Evaluation for Matching Supply and Demand in Cloud Manufacturing. In: Zhang L, Song X, Wu Y, editors. Theory, Methodology, Tools and Applications for Modeling and Simulation of Complex Systems: 16th Asia Simulation Conference and SCS Autumn Simulation Multi-Conference, AsiaSim/SCS AutumnSim 2016, Beijing, China, October 8-11, 2016, Proceedings, Part III, Singapore: Springer; 2016, p. 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism.

Blog post
Luntz S. Straight Hopping Toads Gain The Most Ground. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Internal Control and Financial Management Systems: Major Reform Efforts Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim K. An Inquiry of How Art Education Policies are Reflected in Art Teacher Preparation: Examining the Standards for Visual Arts and Art Teacher Certification. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isaac M. Uber’s Use of ‘Greyball’ Tool to Evade Authorities Spurs U.S. Inquiry. New York Times 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
AbbreviationSemin. Arthritis Rheum.
ISSN (print)0049-0172
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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