How to format your references using the Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Boyd R. Charles H. Townes (1915-2015). Nature 2015;519:292.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Hanrieder J, Ewing AG. Spatial elucidation of spinal cord lipid- and metabolite- regulations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Sci Rep 2014;4:5266.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos M, Sakbodin M, Wang Z. Regenerative adsorption and removal of H2S from hot fuel gas streams by rare earth oxides. Science 2006;312:1508–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zhong Z, Liang S, Sanchez-Lopez E, He F, Shalapour S, Lin X-J, et al. New mitochondrial DNA synthesis enables NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Nature 2018;560:198–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Courant R, McShane EJ. Differential and Integral Calculus. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1988.
An edited book
[1]
Stapleton G, Howse J, Lee J, editors. Diagrammatic Representation and Inference: 5th International Conference, Diagrams 2008, Herrsching, Germany, September 19-21, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 5223. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lyubina J. Magnetocaloric Materials. In: Zhukov A, editor. Novel Functional Magnetic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 115–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. “Death Spiral” Could Be A Fourth Phase Of Life. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. The President’s Decision to Order a Chinese Company’s Divestiture of a Recently Acquired U.S. Aircraft Parts Manufacturer. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Gupta P. Enhanced acquisition of data in the presence of transfaulty nodes in a wireless sensor network. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Stewart JB. For Now, Investors Go Back to Buying. New York Times 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
AbbreviationSemin. Arthritis Rheum.
ISSN (print)0049-0172
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Rheumatology

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