How to format your references using the Semigroup Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semigroup Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrag, D.P.: Preparing to capture carbon. Science. 315, 812–813 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bloch, G., Robinson, G.E.: Chronobiology. Reversal of honeybee behavioural rhythms. Nature. 410, 1048 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Roche, D., Paillard, D., Cortijo, E.: Constraints on the duration and freshwater release of Heinrich event 4 through isotope modelling. Nature. 432, 379–382 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harigaya, Y., Tanaka, H., Yamanaka, S., Tanaka, K., Watanabe, Y., Tsutsumi, C., Chikashige, Y., Hiraoka, Y., Yamashita, A., Yamamoto, M.: Selective elimination of messenger RNA prevents an incidence of untimely meiosis. Nature. 442, 45–50 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bates, J., Gallon, C., Bocci, M., Walker, S., Taylor, T.: Converged Multimedia Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
O’Mathúna, D.P., Gordijn, B., Clarke, M. eds: Disaster Bioethics: Normative Issues When Nothing is Normal: Normative Issues When Nothing is Normal. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Andersson, B.: Harnessing Handheld Computing – Managing IS Support to the Digital Ranger with Defensive Design. In: Jain, H., Sinha, A.P., and Vitharana, P. (eds.) Service-Oriented Perspectives in Design Science Research: 6th International Conference, DESRIST 2011, Milwaukee, WI, USA, May 5-6, 2011. Proceedings. pp. 62–76. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semigroup Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: ‘Missing Plastic’ In The Oceans Can Be Found Below The Surface,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Effects of Delays in FAA’s NAS Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1987)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoover, J.H.: The Arizona water-energy nexus: Electricity for water and wastewater services, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Goodstein, L., Haberman, M.: Trump Is Expected to Relax Tax Rules on Churches That Actively Take Part in Politics, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemigroup Forum
AbbreviationAgron. J.
ISSN (print)0037-1912
ISSN (online)1432-2137
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

Other styles