How to format your references using the Semigroup Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semigroup Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischhoff, B.: The realities of risk-cost-benefit analysis. Science. 350, aaa6516 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hauert, C., Doebeli, M.: Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game. Nature. 428, 643–646 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Yan, D., Zhou, Y., Hou, J.: Supramolecular self-assembly of macroscopic tubes. Science. 303, 65–67 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lam, Y.A., Lawson, T.G., Velayutham, M., Zweier, J.L., Pickart, C.M.: A proteasomal ATPase subunit recognizes the polyubiquitin degradation signal. Nature. 416, 763–767 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis, M., McKimm, J., Forrest, K.: How to Assess Doctors and Health Professionals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2013)
An edited book
Upton, D.: Psychology of Wounds and Wound Care in Clinical Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Baskaran, C., Misra, M.: Undernutrition, Inflammation and Catabolic Illness, and Growth Hormone Secretion. In: Cohen, L.E. (ed.) Growth Hormone Deficiency: Physiology and Clinical Management. pp. 47–61. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semigroup Forum.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Our Gut Microbes Aren’t Nearly as Diverse as those of Hunter-Gatherers,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Guaranteed Student Loans: Guidelines for Reducing Guaranty Agency Reserves. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1986)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maffia, R.: Image matters: Then and now in televisions’ depiction of African Americans, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tomasky, M.: A Bad Deal for Democrats, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemigroup Forum
AbbreviationAgron. J.
ISSN (print)0037-1912
ISSN (online)1432-2137
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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