How to format your references using the Semigroup Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semigroup Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lowry, A.R.: Resonant slow fault slip in subduction zones forced by climatic load stress. Nature. 442, 802–805 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Marsan, D., Lengliné, O.: Extending earthquakes’ reach through cascading. Science. 319, 1076–1079 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, K.N., Taeb, M., Okusu, H.: Biotechnology. Japanese controversies over transgenic crop regulation. Science. 305, 1572 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, Y., Li, Y.-L., Zhou, G.-T., Li, H., Lin, Y.-T., Xiao, X., Wang, F.-P.: Biomineralization mediated by anaerobic methane-consuming cell consortia. Sci. Rep. 4, 5696 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG: MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2013. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2013)
An edited book
Aldinger, C.E., Vince Whitman, C. eds: Case Studies in Global School Health Promotion: From Research to Practice. Springer, New York, NY (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Kätsch, C.: Assessing Landscape Attributes. In: Gadow, K. von and Pukkala, T. (eds.) Designing Green Landscapes. pp. 79–108. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semigroup Forum.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Oldest Known Message-In-A-Bottle Found


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Shuttle: NASA Should Implement Independent Oversight of Software Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gan, K.: A Parity-Violating Spin Rotation Measurement of Transversely Polarized Cold Neutrons Through a Liquid Helium Target, (2011)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N.: No Dancer Escapes His Gaze, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemigroup Forum
AbbreviationAgron. J.
ISSN (print)0037-1912
ISSN (online)1432-2137
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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