How to format your references using the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hobson, K.A., 2002. Ecology. Incredible journeys. Science 295, 981–983.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghalambor, C.K., Martin, T.E., 2001. Fecundity-survival trade-offs and parental risk-taking in birds. Science 292, 494–497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Curtis, R., Groarke, A., Sullivan, F., 2014. Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Sci. Rep. 4, 5569.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beddington, J., Cooper, C.L., Field, J., Goswami, U., Huppert, F.A., Jenkins, R., Jones, H.S., Kirkwood, T.B.L., Sahakian, B.J., Thomas, S.M., 2008. The mental wealth of nations. Nature 455, 1057–1060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, D.F., Malone, S.W., 2008. Macrofinancial Risk Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Lingeman, J.M., 2012. Network Inference in Molecular Biology: A Hands-on Framework, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Norling, E., 2007. Contrasting a System Dynamics Model and an Agent-Based Model of Food Web Evolution, in: Antunes, L., Takadama, K. (Eds.), Multi-Agent-Based Simulation VII: International Workshop, MABS 2006, Hakodate, Japan, May 8, 2006, Revised and Invited Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Invasion of the strange sailor jellyfish – what are they, and will they sting us? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Attack Warning: Status of the Survivable Communications Integration System (No. IMTEC-92-61BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez, S., 2012. Support group for caregivers coping with their child diagnosed with autism: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M., 2017. Drop in Violence Gives a City Hope. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (DeFelipe, 2010; Marcus, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ghalambor and Martin, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmidt et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSaudi Pharmaceutical Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Pharm. J.
ISSN (print)1319-0164
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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