How to format your references using the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jasanoff, S., 2007. Technologies of humility. Nature 450, 33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore, T., Armstrong, K.M., 2003. Selective gating of visual signals by microstimulation of frontal cortex. Nature 421, 370–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guler, U., Boltasseva, A., Shalaev, V.M., 2014. Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics. Science 344, 263–264.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Levine, J.D., Funes, P., Dowse, H.B., Hall, J.C., 2002. Resetting the circadian clock by social experience in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 298, 2010–2012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Omura, Y., Mallik, A., Matsuo, N., 2016. MOS Devices for Low-Voltage and Low-Energy Applications. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Mannion, A.M. (Ed.), 2006. Carbon and its domestication. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Setoguchi, H., Okamoto, Y., Iketani, N., Cho, K., Hattori, M., Kawamura, T., 2012. Acceleration Noise Correction for Transfer Inference Using Accelerometers on Mobile Devices, in: Lovett, T., O’Neill, E. (Eds.), Mobile Context Awareness. Springer, London, pp. 77–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Astronauts Test Underwater Virtual Reality Technology From Microsoft [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Social Security Needs To Better Plan, Develop, and Implement Its Major ADP Systems Redesign Projects (No. HRD-81-47). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duan, C., 2004. Dynamic Analysis of Dry Friction Path in a Torsional System (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Passengers Granted Same Right as Drivers. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jasanoff, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Jasanoff, 2007; Moore and Armstrong, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore and Armstrong, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Levine et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSaudi Pharmaceutical Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Pharm. J.
ISSN (print)1319-0164
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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