How to format your references using the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crowder, R., 2006. Applied physics. Toward robots that can sense texture by touch. Science 312, 1478–1479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yun, M.H., Hiom, K., 2009. CtIP-BRCA1 modulates the choice of DNA double-strand-break repair pathway throughout the cell cycle. Nature 459, 460–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moreira, J.A., Pacheco, J.M., Santos, F.C., 2013. Evolution of collective action in adaptive social structures. Sci. Rep. 3, 1521.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Das, S., Incarvito, C.D., Crabtree, R.H., Brudvig, G.W., 2006. Molecular recognition in the selective oxygenation of saturated C-H bonds by a dimanganese catalyst. Science 312, 1941–1943.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vignes, A., 2013. Extractive Metallurgy 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Manolopoulos, Y., Pokorný, J., Sellis, T.K. (Eds.), 2006. Advances in Databases and Information Systems: 10th East European Conference, ADBIS 2006, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 3-7, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chesney, M., Gheyssens, J., Taschini, L., 2013. The Finance of Environmental Investments, in: Gheyssens, J., Taschini, L. (Eds.), Environmental Finance and Investments, Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 93–146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Nearly 50% Of New Power Plants In 2014 Were For Renewables [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Mobile Devices: Federal Agencies’ Steps to Improve Mobile Access to Government Information and Services (No. GAO-15-69). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, R.U., 2015. A Risk Analysis Tool for Evaluating ROI of TRA for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleinfield, N.R., 2015. Broken Boys, Thieves, Killers, and Now Escapees. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crowder, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Crowder, 2006; Yun and Hiom, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yun and Hiom, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Das et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSaudi Pharmaceutical Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Pharm. J.
ISSN (print)1319-0164
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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