How to format your references using the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ricci-Tersenghi, F., 2010. Mathematics. Being glassy without being hard to solve. Science 330, 1639–1640.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell, J.J., Bhandoola, A., 2008. The earliest thymic progenitors for T cells possess myeloid lineage potential. Nature 452, 764–767.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohse, D., Schmitz, B., Versluis, M., 2001. Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles. Nature 413, 477–478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mitchell, D.G., Perry, M.E., Hamilton, D.C., Westlake, J.H., Kollmann, P., Smith, H.T., Carbary, J.F., Waite, J.H., Jr, Perryman, R., Hsu, H.-W., Wahlund, J.-E., Morooka, M.W., Hadid, L.Z., Persoon, A.M., Kurth, W.S., 2018. Dust grains fall from Saturn’s D-ring into its equatorial upper atmosphere. Science 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.G. Upton, G., 2016. Categorical Data Analysis by Example. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nolta, J.A. (Ed.), 2006. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Beziau, J.-Y., 2016. Two Genuine 3-Valued Paraconsistent Logics, in: Akama, S. (Ed.), Towards Paraconsistent Engineering, Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Bats Upside Down Look Like Breakdancers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Highway Safety: Selected Cases of Commercial Drivers with Potentially Disqualifying Impairments (No. GAO-13-13). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hintz, L., 2015. Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. A Classic Shoe, Restyled. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ricci-Tersenghi, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bell and Bhandoola, 2008; Ricci-Tersenghi, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bell and Bhandoola, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Mitchell et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSaudi Pharmaceutical Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Pharm. J.
ISSN (print)1319-0164
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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