How to format your references using the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heinrich, A.J., 2009. Applied physics. Looking below the surface. Science 323, 1178–1179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lieberman, M.D., Eisenberger, N.I., 2009. Neuroscience. Pains and pleasures of social life. Science 323, 890–891.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haider, B., Häusser, M., Carandini, M., 2013. Inhibition dominates sensory responses in the awake cortex. Nature 493, 97–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jensen, L.J., Jensen, T.S., de Lichtenberg, U., Brunak, S., Bork, P., 2006. Co-evolution of transcriptional and post-translational cell-cycle regulation. Nature 443, 594–597.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bech, S., Zacharov, N., 2006. Perceptual Audio Evaluation-Theory, Method and Application. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lörz, H., Wenzel, G. (Eds.), 2005. Molecular Marker Systems in Plant Breeding and Crop Improvement, Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kindler, S., Kreienkamp, H.-J., 2012. The Role of the Postsynaptic Density in the Pathology of the Fragile X Syndrome, in: Denman, R.B. (Ed.), Modeling Fragile X Syndrome, Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Different Butterflies And Moths Experience Climate Change Differently [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Broadcast and Cable Television: Requirements for Identifying Sponsored Programming Should Be Clarified (No. GAO-13-237). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fischer, D., 2012. Psychology and people living with hiv/aids: A critical review of the literature (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices Scrutinize Death Penalty in Texas. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heinrich, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Heinrich, 2009; Lieberman and Eisenberger, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lieberman and Eisenberger, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Jensen et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSaudi Pharmaceutical Journal
AbbreviationSaudi Pharm. J.
ISSN (print)1319-0164
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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