How to format your references using the Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bordignon, C. Stem-cell therapies for blood diseases. Nature 2006, 441, 1100–1102.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos, A.; Bamzai, A. Policy needs robust climate science. Nature 2005, 438, 285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Z.; Szolnoki, A.; Perc, M. Interdependent network reciprocity in evolutionary games. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1183.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J.; Stein, D.; McMullan, C.; Branton, D.; Aziz, M.J.; Golovchenko, J.A. Ion-beam sculpting at nanometre length scales. Nature 2001, 412, 166–169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morvillo, N. Science and Religion; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444317299.
An edited book
Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXIV; Welch, W.J., Palm, F., Bruley, D.F., Harrison, D.K., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; Vol. 765; ISBN 9781461447719.
A chapter in an edited book
Yamauchi, H. Extended Griess Algebras and Matsuo-Norton Trace Formulae. In Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics: CFT, Heidelberg, September 19-23, 2011; Kohnen, W., Weissauer, R., Eds.; Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 75–107 ISBN 9783662438305.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Robotics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. New Estimate Suggests 100 Million Planets In Our Galaxy Capable Of Sustaining Complex Life Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office DOD Overseas Schools: Additional Assurances of Educational Quality Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herron, M. Prescripton labels: Do you know what medication you are taking? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crawford, S. The Wire Next Time. New York Times 2014, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRobotics
ISSN (online)2218-6581

Other styles