How to format your references using the Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weissman, J. Journal Club. A Biochemist Looks at How DNA Sequencing Can Reveal More than Just Sequences. Nature 2009, 461, 1177.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goswami, P.; Baruah, J. Quantitative Assessment of Relative Roles of Drivers of Acute Respiratory Diseases. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeffer, W.T.; Harper, J.T.; O’Neel, S. Kinematic Constraints on Glacier Contributions to 21st-Century Sea-Level Rise. Science 2008, 321, 1340–1343.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chai, G.; Dong, G.; Qiu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, Z. Phase Transformation and Intense 2.7 Μm Emission from Er3+ Doped YF3/YOF Submicron-Crystals. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mainardi, R.L. Harnessing the Power of Continuous Auditing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118269121.
An edited book
Fundamentals of III-V Semiconductor MOSFETs; Oktyabrsky, S., Ye, P., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; ISBN 9781441915467.
A chapter in an edited book
Henein, M.Y.; Sheppard, M.; Pepper, J.R. Valve Substitutes. In Clinical Echocardiography; Henein, M.Y., Ed.; Springer: London, 2012; pp. 93–103 ISBN 9781848825208.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Indian White Tiger Could Be Too Shy To Mate Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Elementary School Children: Many Change Schools Frequently, Harming Their Education; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gao, S. Characterization of the TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide and Directed Evolution of New Cell Penetrating Peptides for Protein and Nucleotide Delivery to Neuronal -like Cells. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Prospero, Confined Yet Commanding. New York Times 2017, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRobotics
ISSN (online)2218-6581

Other styles