How to format your references using the Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagenal, F. Planetary science. A new spin on Saturn’s rotation. Science 2007, 316, 380–381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laskar, J.; Gastineau, M. Existence of collisional trajectories of Mercury, Mars and Venus with the Earth. Nature 2009, 459, 817–819.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vassilopoulos, G.; Wang, P.-R.; Russell, D.W. Transplanted bone marrow regenerates liver by cell fusion. Nature 2003, 422, 901–904.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ji, Y.; Chung, Y.; Sprinzak, D.; Heiblum, M.; Mahalu, D.; Shtrikman, H. An electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Nature 2003, 422, 415–418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanley, W.; Pamela, B. The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2017; ISBN 9781119289371.
An edited book
Foundations of Augmented Cognition: Neuroergonomics and Operational Neuroscience: 10th International Conference, AC 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II; Schmorrow, D.D., Fidopiastis, C.M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9744; ISBN 9783319399515.
A chapter in an edited book
Cousins, D. Implementing Environmental and Social Risk Management on the Ground: Interfaces Between Clients, Investment Banks, Multi-laterals, Consultants and Contractors: A Case Study from the EBRD. In Responsible Investment Banking: Risk Management Frameworks, Sustainable Financial Innovation and Softlaw Standards; Wendt, K., Ed.; CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 81–107 ISBN 9783319103105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Rosetta Sees Evidence Of Active Water-Ice Cycle On Comet 67P Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Questions Designed To Aid Managers and Auditors in Assessing the ADP Planning Process; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1979;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuknis, C.M. A grounded theory of deaf middle school students’ revision of their own writing. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr Man Charged With Murder In Shooting At Rap Show. New York Times 2017, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRobotics
ISSN (online)2218-6581

Other styles