How to format your references using the Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balco, G. Climate. The Geographic Footprint of Glacier Change. Science 2009, 324, 599–600.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, A.I.; Foote, M. Epicontinental Seas versus Open-Ocean Settings: The Kinetics of Mass Extinction and Origination. Science 2009, 326, 1106–1109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Viswanathan, S.R.; Daley, G.Q.; Gregory, R.I. Selective Blockade of MicroRNA Processing by Lin28. Science 2008, 320, 97–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lendvai, B.; Stern, E.A.; Chen, B.; Svoboda, K. Experience-Dependent Plasticity of Dendritic Spines in the Developing Rat Barrel Cortex in Vivo. Nature 2000, 404, 876–881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bowling, J. Diagnostic Dermoscopy; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444329834.
An edited book
Grounding Global Climate Change: Contributions from the Social and Cultural Sciences; Greschke, H., Tischler, J., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; ISBN 9789401793216.
A chapter in an edited book
Streffer, C.; Gethmann, C.F.; Kamp, G.; Kröger, W.; Rehbinder, E.; Renn, O.; Röhlig, K.-J. Conclusions and recommendations. In Radioactive Waste: Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal; Gethmann, C.F., Kamp, G., Kröger, W., Rehbinder, E., Renn, O., Röhlig, K.-J., Eds.; Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 87–107 ISBN 9783642229244.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Robotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The Horrifying Way That Scientists Want To Treat Celiac Disease Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Army Budget: Potential Reductions to Budget Requests for Selected ADP Systems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Webster, W.P. The Influence of Philanthropy and Administrative Decision-Making Models on a Liberal Arts College’s Strategic Planning Process: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, G.; Shpigel, B. Jets Owner Is Appointed Ambassador to Britain. New York Times 2017, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRobotics
ISSN (online)2218-6581

Other styles