How to format your references using the Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley, P. Climate Change Transforms Island Ecosystem. Nature 2001, 410, 616.
A journal article with 2 authors
Corcoran, A.J.; Conner, W.E. Bats Jamming Bats: Food Competition through Sonar Interference. Science 2014, 346, 745–747.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, S.-H.; Chen, W.-R.; Mallamace, F. The Glass-to-Glass Transition and Its End Point in a Copolymer Micellar System. Science 2003, 300, 619–622.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ling, L.; Jiafeng, J.; Jiangang, L.; Minchong, S.; Xin, H.; Hanliang, S.; Yuanhua, D. Effects of Cold Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Soybean. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arifin, S.M.N.; Madey, G.R.; Collins, F.H. Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781118964385.
An edited book
Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms: Proceedings of the International Conference in Coimbra, Portugal, 2005; Ribeiro, B., Albrecht, R.F., Dobnikar, A., Pearson, D.W., Steele, N.C., Eds.; Springer: Vienna, 2005; ISBN 9783211249345.
A chapter in an edited book
Srinivasulu, S.; Jain, A. Rainfall-Runoff Modelling: Integrating Available Data and Modern Techniques. In Practical Hydroinformatics: Computational Intelligence and Technological Developments in Water Applications; Abrahart, R.J., See, L.M., Solomatine, D.P., Eds.; Water Science and Technology Library; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 59–70 ISBN 9783540798804.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Robotics.

Blog post
Evans, K. Your Cringing Response To Nails On A Blackboard Now Has A Name Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Total Quality Education; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simsic, G. Revisiting Addiction Using Depth Psychology: The Myth of Exodus as a Blueprint for Recovery. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. When the City Says Show Me, It Means It. New York Times 2002, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRobotics
ISSN (online)2218-6581

Other styles