How to format your references using the Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laursen L 2008 SCIENCE CAREERS: Geoscientists in High Demand in the Oil Industry Science 321 857–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Blanpain C and Fuchs E 2014 Stem cell plasticity. Plasticity of epithelial stem cells in tissue regeneration Science 344 1242281
A journal article with 3 authors
Raihani N J, Grutter A S and Bshary R 2010 Punishers benefit from third-party punishment in fish Science 327 171
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Rodriguez-Viciana P, Tetsu O, Tidyman W E, Estep A L, Conger B A, Cruz M S, McCormick F and Rauen K A 2006 Germline mutations in genes within the MAPK pathway cause cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome Science 311 1287–90

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes E 2012 Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Shahzad A, Sharma S and Siddiqui S A 2016 Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Parker G 2015 Punctuated Anytime Learning for Autonomous Agent Control Control and Systems Engineering: A Report on Four Decades of Contributions Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ed A El-Osery and J Prevost (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 89–107

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Blog post
Andrews R 2016 90 Megacity Mayors Pledge To Fight Dangerous Climate Change IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992 Advance Sheets: Volume 72, Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best T F 2014 Evaluation of effectiveness, reproducibility, and repeatability of using dentition for estimating cattle age Doctoral dissertation (Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B 2017 Müller Climbs the Rankings at an Age When Others Retire New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Astronomy and Astrophysics
AbbreviationRes. Astron. Astrophys.
ISSN (print)1674-4527
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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