How to format your references using the Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ober C K 2002 Self-assembly. Persistence pays off Science 296 859–61
A journal article with 2 authors
Romney D K and Miller S J 2015 Chemistry. Climbing Jacob’s ladder Science 347 829
A journal article with 3 authors
Aguzzi A, Barres B A and Bennett M L 2013 Microglia: scapegoat, saboteur, or something else? Science 339 156–61
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Chow A, Toomre D, Garrett W and Mellman I 2002 Dendritic cell maturation triggers retrograde MHC class II transport from lysosomes to the plasma membrane Nature 418 988–94

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choi N-E and Han J H 2015 How Flavor Works (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Metaxas D, Axel L, Fichtinger G and Székely G 2008 Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2008: 11th International Conference, New York, NY, USA, September 6-10, 2008, Proceedings, Part II vol 5242 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang W, Zhao H, Jin Z and Mei H 2011 Towards a More Fundamental Explanation of Constraints in Feature Models: A Requirement-Oriented Approach Top Productivity through Software Reuse: 12th International Conference on Software Reuse, ICSR 2011, Pohang, South Korea, June 13-17, 2011. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed K Schmid (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 36–51

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Blog post
Luntz S 2014 Why One Glacier Isn’t Melting In a Warming World IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1987 Bilingual Education: Information on Limited English Proficient Students (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Merkurjev D 2015 Understanding Enhancer Role in Transcriptional Response Doctoral dissertation (La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Candaele K 2002 BackTalk; A Brother Finds Family Comfort in Turbulent Waters New York Times 811

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Astronomy and Astrophysics
AbbreviationRes. Astron. Astrophys.
ISSN (print)1674-4527
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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