How to format your references using the Renal Replacement Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Renal Replacement Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hilser VJ. Biochemistry. An ensemble view of allostery. Science. 2010;327:653–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Vaquero-Sedas MI, Vega-Palas MA. Differential association of Arabidopsis telomeres and centromeres with histone H3 variants. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1202.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cymes GD, Ni Y, Grosman C. Probing ion-channel pores one proton at a time. Nature. 2005;438:975–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ieong M, Doris B, Kedzierski J, Rim K, Yang M. Silicon device scaling to the sub-10-nm regime. Science. 2004;306:2057–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chowdhury S. Optimization and Business Improvement Studies in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. He M. Metal-Dielectric Interfaces in Gigascale Electronics: Thermal and Electrical Stability. Lu T-M, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Du Y, Hsu JL, Wang Y-N, Hung M-C. Nuclear Functions of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases. In: Wheeler DL, Yarden Y, editors. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Structure, Functions and Role in Human Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. p. 77–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Renal Replacement Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Unburnable Carbon: Why We Need To Leave Fossil Fuels In The Ground [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Health, Education, Employment, and Income Security Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-94-117W.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Buzinski P. Exploring job satisfaction of long-term virtual employees [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Namath Has His Own Memories of ’65. New York Times. 2010 Jan 7;B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRenal Replacement Therapy
AbbreviationRen. Replace. Ther.
ISSN (online)2059-1381

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