How to format your references using the Renal Replacement Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Renal Replacement Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Guberman SL. Chemistry. Breaking up is hard to do without an electron. Science. 2001;294:1474–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lukas D, Huchard E. Sexual conflict. The evolution of infanticide by males in mammalian societies. Science. 2014;346:841–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lu Y, Wang W, Kirschner MW. Specificity of the anaphase-promoting complex: a single-molecule study. Science. 2015;348:1248737.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kundu B, Schlimp CJ, Nürnberger S, Redl H, Kundu SC. Thromboelastometric and platelet responses to silk biomaterials. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ferguson N, Schneier B, Kohno T. Cryptography Engineering. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. van Ham M, Manley D, Bailey N, Simpson L, Maclennan D, editors. Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cochez M, Terziyan V, Ermolayev V. Balanced Large Scale Knowledge Matching Using LSH Forest. In: Cardoso J, Guerra F, Houben G-J, Pinto AM, Velegrakis Y, editors. Semantic Keyword-based Search on Structured Data Sources: First COST Action IC1302 International KEYSTONE Conference, IKC 2015, Coimbra, Portugal, September 8-9, 2015 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 36–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Renal Replacement Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Genetic Testing Isn’t A Crystal Ball For Your Health. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Feasibility of Treating Contractors’ Independent Research and Development Costs as a Budget Line Item. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Mar. Report No.: B-164912.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Davis TE. Sedimentation solutions for the Port of Gulfport, MS [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Otis J. Raising Grandchildren in a Home That’s Brimming With Love, and Open to All. New York Times. 2017 Jan 24;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRenal Replacement Therapy
AbbreviationRen. Replace. Ther.
ISSN (online)2059-1381

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