How to format your references using the Renal Replacement Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Renal Replacement Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Batty M. The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science. 2008;319:769–71.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hopkins R, Rausher MD. Identification of two genes causing reinforcement in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii. Nature. 2011;469:411–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Taneike M, Abe F, Sawada K. Creep-strengthening of steel at high temperatures using nano-sized carbonitride dispersions. Nature. 2003;424:294–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen Z, Odstrcil EA, Tu BP, McKnight SL. Restriction of DNA replication to the reductive phase of the metabolic cycle protects genome integrity. Science. 2007;316:1916–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tiwari A, Gerhardt RA, Szutkowska M. Advanced Ceramic Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Constanda C, Harris PJ, editors. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hu Z, Hu Z. The Supply and Demand Models Based on Electricity Consumption. In: Hu Z, editor. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 79–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Renal Replacement Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Self-Sustaining Urban Ecosystem Discovered In Abandoned Building In Thailand [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Self-Sufficiency: Opportunities and Disincentives on the Road to Economic Independence. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Aug. Report No.: HRD-93-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Long RE. Performance Assessment of Predicted Heat Strain in High Heat Stress Exposures [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grynbaum MM. Is It Wrong to Body Slam a Journalist? These Days, Opinions Vary. New York Times. 2017 May 26;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRenal Replacement Therapy
AbbreviationRen. Replace. Ther.
ISSN (online)2059-1381

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