How to format your references using the Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rubin AE. Planetary science. Fragments of the lunar cataclysm. Science. 2012 Jun;336(6087):1390–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whitesides GM, Deutch J. Let’s get practical. Nature. 2011 Jan;469(7328):21–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen G, Zhuchenko O, Kuspa A. Immune-like phagocyte activity in the social amoeba. Science. 2007 Aug;317(5838):678–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hörz F, Muller RA, Becker TA, Culler TS, Karner DB, Renne PR. Time-variable cratering rates? Science. 2000 Jun;288(5474):2095a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edwards J. Telecosmos. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Pollard AJ, Finn A, editors. Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children II. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh S, Bachhar T, Maiti NS, Mitra I, Pal Chaudhuri P. Theory and Application of Equal Length Cycle Cellular Automata (ELCCA) for Enzyme Classification. In: Bandini S, Manzoni S, Umeo H, Vizzari G, editors. Cellular Automata: 9th International Conference on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry, ACRI 2010, Ascoli Piceno, Italy, September 21-24, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010; pp 46–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E. Our Peripheral Vision Is Far More Sophisticated Than We Thought [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Radio Marti. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanford V. Finding theatre from within: Augusto Boal’s Games for Non-Actors in an Introduction to Acting class. 2016

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. New Stat for a Slugger: Back Page Appearances. New York Times. 2017 Jan;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
AbbreviationDement. Geriatr. Cogn. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5464

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