How to format your references using the Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashrafian H: Intelligent robots must uphold human rights. Nature 2015;519:391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gentner TQ, Margoliash D: Neuronal populations and single cells representing learned auditory objects. Nature 2003;424:669–674.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagao K, Adachi Y, Yanagida M: Separase-mediated cleavage of cohesin at interphase is required for DNA repair. Nature 2004;430:1044–1048.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, et al.: Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 2008;319:756–760.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koperski J: The Physics of Theism. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Knox C: Public Policy, Philanthropy and Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland. London, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ellinger AD, Hamlin RG, Beattie RS, Wang Y-L, McVicar O: Managerial Coaching as a Workplace Learning Strategy; in Poell RF, Woerkom M van (eds): Supporting Workplace Learning: Towards Evidence-based Practice. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2011, pp 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra.

Blog post
Fang J: Deepsea Graveyard is Fish Food Bonanza. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Kennedy Space Center: Decision on Photographic Requirements Appears Justified. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lake AD: Hepatic stress response mechanisms in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M: THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Week; “Did Not!” and “Did So!” Frame the Tax Debate. New York Times 1992;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
AbbreviationDement. Geriatr. Cogn. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5464

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