How to format your references using the Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingeras TR. Implications of chimaeric non-co-linear transcripts. Nature. 2009 Sep;461(7261):206–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao X, Wang K. Strength of stick-slip and creeping subduction megathrusts from heat flow observations. Science. 2014 Aug;345(6200):1038–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak MA, Tarnita CE, Wilson EO. The evolution of eusociality. Nature. 2010 Aug;466(7310):1057–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ishii D, Kinbara K, Ishida Y, Ishii N, Okochi M, Yohda M, et al. Chaperonin-mediated stabilization and ATP-triggered release of semiconductor nanoparticles. Nature. 2003 Jun;423(6940):628–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan MM, Islam MR. Zero Waste Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Grobman S. The Second Economy: The Race for Trust, Treasure and Time in the Cybersecurity War. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Holland MB. Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. In: Hilty JA, Chester CC, Cross MS, editors. Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics; 2012; pp 56–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientist At Work: Mathematician Collects Ocean And Glacier Data In The Field To Make Climate Models In The Lab [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jul


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercollegiate Athletics: Status of Efforts to Promote Gender Equity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soma VM. A particle filter methodology for salient object detection in videos. 2016

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. In Scandal at Puerto Rican Utility, a Key Player Insists He Took No Bribes. New York Times. 2016 Mar;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
AbbreviationDement. Geriatr. Cogn. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5464

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