How to format your references using the Rare Cancers and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Cancers and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pennisi E. Biomaterials. Crystalline eyes of chitons inspire materials scientists. Science. 2015;350:899.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rowe C, Healy SD. Evolution. Is bigger always better? Science. 2011;333:708–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kormendy J, Bender R, Cornell ME. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges. Nature. 2011;469:374–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gao PX, Ding Y, Mai W, Hughes WL, Lao C, Wang ZL. Conversion of zinc oxide nanobelts into superlattice-structured nanohelices. Science. 2005;309:1700–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zito R. Electrochemical Water Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Fauchais PL. Thermal Spray Fundamentals: From Powder to Part. Heberlein JVR, Boulos MI, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ramaekers S, Suissa J. Good Enough Parenting? In: Suissa J, editor. The Claims of Parenting: Reasons, Responsibility and Society. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 73–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Cancers and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Geology of Mars Might Be More Complex Than Previously Believed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Supplemental Student Loans: Who Are the Largest Lenders? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Feb. Report No.: HRD-90-72FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dolan DJ. Structural Evolution of Martin Crater Thaumasia Planum, Mars [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Versatile Met Tries to Pull a Murphy. New York Times. 2016 Sep 14;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Cancers and Therapy
ISSN (print)2195-6014
ISSN (online)2195-6022

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