How to format your references using the Rare Cancers and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rare Cancers and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Le Bot N. Developmental biology: Earn your wings. Nature. 2015;519:420.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Alsdorf DE, Lettenmaier DP. Geophysics. Tracking fresh water from space. Science. 2003;301:1491–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wu JI, Crabtree GR, Crabtee GR. Cell signaling. Nuclear actin as choreographer of cell morphology and transcription. Science. 2007;316:1710–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Elser JJ, Andersen T, Baron JS, Bergström A-K, Jansson M, Kyle M, et al. Shifts in lake N:P stoichiometry and nutrient limitation driven by atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Science. 2009;326:835–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zhang KQT. Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Zhang R. Fuzzy Control of Queuing Systems. Phillis YA, Kouikoglou VS, editors. London: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Focht E, Großmann T, Sternkopf D. I/O Forwarding on NEC SX-9. In: Resch M, Benkert K, Wang X, Galle M, Bez W, Kobayashi H, et al., editors. High Performance Computing on Vector Systems 2010. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rare Cancers and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Hale T. “Xenomorph Baby” Pokes His Feet Out Through His Mom’s Uterus [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Small Business Innovation Research: Change in Program Eligibility Has Had Little Impact. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Nov. Report No.: GAO-15-68.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bombard B. Literature circles book club for science and language arts [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chira S. Mixed Signals on the Runways. New York Times. 2017 Feb 15;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRare Cancers and Therapy
ISSN (print)2195-6014
ISSN (online)2195-6022

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