How to format your references using the Race and Social Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Race and Social Problems (Race Soc Probl). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bai, C. (2005). Global voices of science. Ascent of nanoscience in China. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 61–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cunningham, E. J., & Russell, A. F. (2000). Egg investment is influenced by male attractiveness in the mallard. Nature, 404(6773), 74–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palm, N. W., Rosenstein, R. K., & Medzhitov, R. (2012). Allergic host defences. Nature, 484(7395), 465–472.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ho, D. G., Gao, R., Celaje, J., Chung, H.-Y., & Selke, M. (2003). Phosphadioxirane: a peroxide from an ortho-substituted arylphosphine and singlet dioxygen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5643), 259–262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond, B. (2016). Legal Aspects of Mental Capacity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Alhajj, R., & Rokne, J. (Eds.). (2014). Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lane, J. I., & Witte, R. J. (2010). Advanced Imaging Applications. In R. J. Witte (Ed.), The Temporal Bone: An Imaging Atlas (pp. 75–96). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Race and Social Problems.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, October 22). Sunscreen Is Killing Coral Reefs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). FAA Budget: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed (No. T-RCED-92-51). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ringler, I. (2008). Values satisfaction and participation in a community leadership program: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2016, September 18). Paralympics; Iranian Cyclist Dies After Crash at Rio Games. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bai 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bai 2005, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cunningham and Russell 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Ho et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleRace and Social Problems
AbbreviationRace Soc. Probl.
ISSN (print)1867-1748
ISSN (online)1867-1756
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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