How to format your references using the Race and Social Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Race and Social Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mazin, I. I. (2015). Superconductivity: Extraordinarily conventional. Nature, 525(7567), 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seo, M., & Hillmyer, M. A. (2012). Reticulated nanoporous polymers by controlled polymerization-induced microphase separation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6087), 1422–1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koo, B., Nottenburg, C., & Pardey, P. G. (2004). Intellectual property. Plants and intellectual property: an international appraisal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5700), 1295–1297.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sun, J., Liu, X., Huang, J., Song, L., Chen, Z., Liu, H., et al. (2014). Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies. Scientific reports, 4, 5125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee. (2005). Continuous Direct-Heat Rotary Dryers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vene, V., & Uustalu, T. (Eds.). (2005). Advanced Functional Programming: 5th International School, AFP 2004, Tartu, Estonia, August 14 – 21, 2004, Revised Lectures (Vol. 3622). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi, Z. (2008). Application of First Principles Methods in the Study of Fuel Cell Air-Cathode Electrocatalysis. In J. Zhang (Ed.), PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 289–329). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Race and Social Problems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 26). Bubonic Plague Outbreak Spreads in Madagascar. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Development Schedule Should Be Changed to Reduce Risks (No. NSIAD-00-74). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, D. (2012). A good story changes everything (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016, August 25). Review: ‘Dying to Know’ How to Turn on, Tune in, Drop Out. New York Times, p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mazin 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Mazin 2015; Seo and Hillmyer 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seo and Hillmyer 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleRace and Social Problems
AbbreviationRace Soc. Probl.
ISSN (print)1867-1748
ISSN (online)1867-1756
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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