How to format your references using the Race and Social Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Race and Social Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Visions of Europe’s future. Nature, 421(6922), 557.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birchler, J. A., & Kavi, H. H. (2008). Molecular biology. Slicing and dicing for small RNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5879), 1023–1024.
A journal article with 3 authors
Avitabile, C., D’Andrea, L. D., & Romanelli, A. (2014). Circular Dichroism studies on the interactions of antimicrobial peptides with bacterial cells. Scientific reports, 4, 4293.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Smith, G. F., Steenkamp, Y., Klopper, R. R., Siebert, S. J., & Arnold, T. H. (2003). The price of collecting life. Nature, 422(6930), 375–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minns, P., & Elliott, I. (2008). FSM-Based Digital Design Using Verilog HDL. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gaggioli, A. (2013). Networked Flow: Towards an Understanding of Creative Networks. (G. Riva, L. Milani, & E. Mazzoni, Eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bucsics, A., Sauermann, R., & Nell-Duxneuner, V. (2016). Current Topics in Drug Reimbursement. In M. Müller (Ed.), Clinical Pharmacology: Current Topics and Case Studies (pp. 33–48). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Race and Social Problems.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2014, October 30). The Spookiest Places in the Universe. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Information Technology: Treasury Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Board Operations and Oversight (No. GAO-07-865). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ziv, A. (2014). Dynamics in interactions with digital technology: A depth psychological/theoretical exploration of the evolutionary-biological, symbolic, and emotional psyche in the digital age (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., & Turkewitz, J. (2014, January 5). Charred Body of Kidnapped Man Is Found on Long Island. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Birchler and Kavi 2008; Smaglik 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birchler and Kavi 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleRace and Social Problems
AbbreviationRace Soc. Probl.
ISSN (print)1867-1748
ISSN (online)1867-1756
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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