How to format your references using the Publications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Publications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers, E.G. Fundamental constants: The teamwork of precision. Nature 2014, 506, 440–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeKosky, S.T.; Marek, K. Looking backward to move forward: early detection of neurodegenerative disorders. Science 2003, 302, 830–834.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bliokh, K.Y.; Smirnova, D.; Nori, F. OPTICS. Quantum spin Hall effect of light. Science 2015, 348, 1448–1451.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Langevin, Y.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B. Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express. Science 2005, 307, 1584–1586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carvalho, M.C. Practical Laboratory Automation; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2016; ISBN 9783527801954.
An edited book
Freddi, A. Experimental Stress Analysis for Materials and Structures: Stress Analysis Models for Developing Design Methodologies; Olmi, G., Cristofolini, L., Eds.; Springer Series in Solid and Structural Mechanics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 4; ISBN 9783319060859.
A chapter in an edited book
Fardoun, H.M.; Alghazzawi, D.M.; López, S.R.; Penichet, V.M.R.; Gallud, J.A. Online Social Networks Impact in Secondary Education. In International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning; Vittorini, P., Gennari, R., Marenzi, I., Prieta, F. de la, Rodríguez, J.M.C., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 37–45 ISBN 9783642288005.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Publications.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Using Seawater To Create Jet Fuel Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control: Improvements Needed In FAA’s Management of Acquisitions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lotrecchiano, G.R. Social Mechanisms of Team Science: A Descriptive Case Study Using a Multilevel Systems Perspective Employing Reciprocating Structuration Theory. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Street-Cleaning Rules Are Whisked Away, And Drivers Get a Little Patch of Heaven. New York Times 2002, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePublications
ISSN (online)2304-6775

Other styles