How to format your references using the Public Health Nutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Public Health Nutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2004) Looking for a fast track. Nature 431, 381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen JE & Gürtler RE (2001) Modeling household transmission of American trypanosomiasis. Science 293, 694–698.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cusick RD, Kim Y & Logan BE (2012) Energy capture from thermolytic solutions in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells. Science 335, 1474–1477.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McFarland BK, Farrell JP, Bucksbaum PH, et al. (2008) High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2. Science 322, 1232–1235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Klerk A (2011) Fischer-Tropsch Refining. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Laurila T (2012) Interfacial Compatibility in Microelectronics: Moving Away from the Trial and Error Approach. [Vuorinen V, Paulasto-Kröckel M, Turunen M, et al., editors]. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Belgasem FFB & Salleh HM (2015) Characterization of Recombinant Enzymes. In Recombinant Enzymes - From Basic Science to Commercialization, pp. 41–60 [Amid A, editor]. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Public Health Nutrition.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) City Installs Special Traffic Lights For 'Smartphone Zombies”. IFLScience. IFLScience; (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Education and Care: Head Start Key Among Array of Early Childhood Programs, but National Research on Effectiveness Not Completed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Che H (2009) Non-linear development of streaming instabilities in magnetic reconnection with a strong guide field. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2011) No Frills, Just Sweet Treats. New York Times, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePublic Health Nutrition
AbbreviationPublic Health Nutr.
ISSN (print)1368-9800
ISSN (online)1475-2727
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Nutrition and Dietetics

Other styles