How to format your references using the Psychopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel G. China ponders joining fusion project. Nature. 2002 Oct;419(6907):545.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reid DW, Nicchitta CV. LOCAL TRANSLATION. Comment on “Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling.” Science. 2015 Jun;348(6240):1217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas J, Creamer W, Ruiz A. Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru. Nature. 2004 Dec;432(7020):1020–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Keppler F, Harper DB, Greule M, Ott U, Sattler T, Schöler HF, et al. Chloromethane release from carbonaceous meteorite affords new insight into Mars lander findings. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov;4:7010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cowan JP. The Effects of Sound on People. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Fortis M. Italy’s Top Products in World Trade: The Fortis-Corradini Index. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Miquel-Martí V, Sordé-Martí T. A New Understanding of Globalization: The Case of the Romà. In: Zajda J, Biraimah K, Gaudelli W, editors. Education and Social Inequality in the Global Culture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008; pp 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychopathology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Warning Of “1 in 100” San Andreas Fault Earthquake Prompts Concerns [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Oct [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Further Testing of IRS’ Automated Taxpayer Service Systems Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasami S. Ultra-Low Power RFIC for Space/Medical/Mobile Applications. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. His Life’s Work. New York Times. 2017 May;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychopathology
ISSN (print)0254-4962
ISSN (online)1423-033X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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