How to format your references using the Psychopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parsch J. Evolution. The cost of being male. Science. 2011 May;332(6031):798–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trampert J, van Heijst HJ. Global azimuthal anisotropy in the transition zone. Science. 2002 May;296(5571):1297–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yohe G, Andronova N, Schlesinger M. Climate. To hedge or not against an uncertain climate future? Science. 2004 Oct;306(5695):416–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ho GC, Krimigis SM, Gold RE, Baker DN, Slavin JA, Anderson BJ, et al. MESSENGER observations of transient bursts of energetic electrons in Mercury’s magnetosphere. Science. 2011 Sep;333(6051):1865–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper N, Forrest K, Cramp P. Essential Guide to Acute Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Stan-Lotter H, Fendrihan S, editors. Adaption of Microbial Life to Environmental Extremes: Novel Research Results and Application. Vienna: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
van der Lans A. Enterprise Content Management (ECM): The Unstructured Part. In: Baan P, editor. Enterprise Information Management: When Information Becomes Inspiration. New York, NY: Springer; 2013; pp 125–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychopathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. GM Food Labels Do Not Act As A Warning To Consumers [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Strengthen Investment Board Oversight of Poorly Planned and Performing Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen J. Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Shostakovich Is Scaled Down After Protests From Church. New York Times. 2006 Oct;E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychopathology
ISSN (print)0254-4962
ISSN (online)1423-033X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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