How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice, S. A. (2001). Interfering for the good of a chemical reaction. Nature, 409(6818), 422–426.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hasty, P., & Vijg, J. (2002). Aging. Genomic priorities in aging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5571), 1250–1251.
A journal article with 3 authors
GrandPré, T., Li, S., & Strittmatter, S. M. (2002). Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide promotes axonal regeneration. Nature, 417(6888), 547–551.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Solanki, S. K., Lagg, A., Woch, J., Krupp, N., & Collados, M. (2003). Three-dimensional magnetic field topology in a region of solar coronal heating. Nature, 425(6959), 692–695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb, A. H., & Reade, J. P. H. (2010). Herbicides and Plant Physiology. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Pape, H.-C., Sanders, R., & Borrelli, J., Jr. (Eds.). (2016). The Poly-Traumatized Patient with Fractures: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach (2nd ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holleis, P., & Schmidt, A. (2008). MakeIt: Integrate User Interaction Times in the Design Process of Mobile Applications. In J. Indulska, D. J. Patterson, T. Rodden, & M. Ott (Eds.), Pervasive Computing: 6th International Conference, Pervasive 2008 Sydney, Australia, May 19-22, 2008 Proceedings (pp. 56–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 9). Rare and Deadly, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Remains a Bit of a Medical Mystery. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Financial Literacy: Overview of Federal Activities, Programs, and Challenges (GAO-14-556T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanford, C. J. (2008). Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating biosensors [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017, June 25). Sale of Albee Collection To Benefit Foundation. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rice, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hasty & Vijg, 2002; Rice, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hasty & Vijg, 2002)
  • Three authors: (GrandPré et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Solanki et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychology
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychol.
ISSN (print)0736-9735
ISSN (online)1939-1331
ScopeClinical Psychology

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