How to format your references using the Psychoanalytic Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychoanalytic Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbash, D. A. (2011). Comment on “A test of the snowball theory for the rate of evolution of hybrid incompatibilities.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6049), 1576; author reply 1576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bays, P. M., & Husain, M. (2008). Dynamic shifts of limited working memory resources in human vision. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 851–854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hiraga, T., Anderson, I. M., & Kohlstedt, D. L. (2004). Grain boundaries as reservoirs of incompatible elements in the Earth’s mantle. Nature, 427(6976), 699–703.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bachnoff, N., Cohen-Kutner, M., Trus, M., & Atlas, D. (2013). Intra-membrane signaling between the voltage-gated Ca2+-channel and cysteine residues of syntaxin 1A coordinates synchronous release. Scientific Reports, 3, 1620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golio, M. (2006). Engineering Your Retirement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Férard, J.-F., & Blaise, C. (Eds.). (2013). Encyclopedia of Aquatic Ecotoxicology. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Braff, M. H., & Gallo, R. L. (2006). Antimicrobial Peptides: An Essential Component of the Skin Defensive Barrier. In W. M. Shafer (Ed.), Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease (pp. 91–110). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychoanalytic Psychology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, June 30). Amazon Rainforest Could Be Set For An Intense Wildfire Season Driven By El Niño. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Government Civilian Aircraft: Central Management Reforms Are Encouraging but Require Extensive Oversight (GGD-89-86). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin, L.-M. (2010). Transformation in Chinese Theatre Works’ the Legend of White Snake [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & Mouawad, J. (2012, February 1). U.S. Pension Agency Pressures American Airlines. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barbash, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Barbash, 2011; Bays & Husain, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bays & Husain, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Hiraga et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bachnoff et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychoanalytic Psychology
AbbreviationPsychoanal. Psychol.
ISSN (print)0736-9735
ISSN (online)1939-1331
ScopeClinical Psychology

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