How to format your references using the PROSPECTS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PROSPECTS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D. (2014). Allow use of electronic cigarettes to assess risk. Nature, 512(7515), 349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudisch, A., & Vaupel, J. W. (2012). Evolution. Getting to the root of aging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Z., Yu, H., & Su, H. (2013). The transport properties of oxygen vacancy-related polaron-like bound state in HfOx. Scientific reports, 3, 3246.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nagpal, G., Sharma, M., Kumar, S., Chaudhary, K., Gupta, S., Gautam, A., & Raghava, G. P. S. (2014). PCMdb: pancreatic cancer methylation database. Scientific reports, 4, 4197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richter, D. H. (2017). Reading the Eighteenth-Century Novel. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Stack, M. S., & Fishman, D. A. (Eds.). (2010). Ovarian Cancer: Second Edition (2nd ed., Vol. 149). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Netzer, A., & Meisels, A. (2012). SOCIAL DCOP - Social Choice in Distributed Constraints Optimization. In F. M. T. Brazier, K. Nieuwenhuis, G. Pavlin, M. Warnier, & C. Badica (Eds.), Intelligent Distributed Computing V: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2011, Delft, The Netherlands – October 2011 (pp. 35–47). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PROSPECTS.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, November 3). Space Plane Company Develops Revolutionary Hybrid Rocket Engine That Could Take You Anywhere In The World In Four Hours. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Relationship of Contractor and Grantee ADP Activities (No. 092981). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shamloo Aliabadi, E. (2013). The effect of distortion on trajectory of diesel Particulate Matters (PM) from mobile sources (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, July 17). Jay-Z’s ‘4:44’ Takes An Easy Trip to No. 1. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Baudisch and Vaupel 2012; Sarewitz 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baudisch and Vaupel 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagpal et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePROSPECTS
AbbreviationProspects (Paris)
ISSN (print)0033-1538
ISSN (online)1573-9090

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