How to format your references using the PROSPECTS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PROSPECTS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chicurel, M. (2002). Genome analysis at your fingertips. Nature, 419(6908), 751, 753.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karijolich, J., & Yu, Y.-T. (2011). Converting nonsense codons into sense codons by targeted pseudouridylation. Nature, 474(7351), 395–398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kramer, G., Guilbride, D. L., & Bukau, B. (2015). Cell Biology. Finding nascent proteins the right home. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6231), 182–183.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Übel, C., Graser, A., Koch, S., Rieker, R. J., Lehr, H. A., Müller, M., & Finotto, S. (2014). Role of Tyk-2 in Th9 and Th17 cells in allergic asthma. Scientific reports, 4, 5865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brower, M. C. (2012). Wind Resource Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abdulla, R.-I. (Ed.). (2011). Heart Diseases in Children: A Pediatrician’s Guide. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Titov, D. V., Piccioni, G., Drossart, P., & Markiewicz, W. J. (2013). Radiative Energy Balance in the Venus Atmosphere. In L. Bengtsson, R.-M. Bonnet, D. Grinspoon, S. Koumoutsaris, S. Lebonnois, & D. Titov (Eds.), Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus: Applications of Terrestrial Models to Our Sister Planet (pp. 23–53). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PROSPECTS.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, August 10). Why Does Coffee Make You Poop? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Greater Emphasis on Information Resource Management Is Needed at the Federal Aviation Administration (No. RCED-83-60). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bortle, C. D. (2010). The role of mnemonic acronyms in clinical emergency medicine: A grounded theory study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, February 22). We’re All Doomed. It Says So in the Script. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chicurel 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Chicurel 2002; Karijolich and Yu 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karijolich and Yu 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Übel et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePROSPECTS
AbbreviationProspects (Paris)
ISSN (print)0033-1538
ISSN (online)1573-9090

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