How to format your references using the PROSPECTS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PROSPECTS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herrmann, M. (2014). Plasma physics: A promising advance in nuclear fusion. Nature, 506(7488), 302–303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun, F., & He, S. (2014). Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium. Scientific reports, 4, 6832.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic, J., Coontz, R., & Osborne, I. (2011). Superconductivity. Happy 100th, superconductivity! Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6026), 189.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schwarz, J. P., Gao, R. S., Perring, A. E., Spackman, J. R., & Fahey, D. W. (2013). Black carbon aerosol size in snow. Scientific reports, 3, 1356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zito, R. (2011). Electrochemical Water Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dong, G. (Ed.). (2014). C-C Bond Activation (Vol. 346). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Soós, G. (2008). Local and National Parties in Hungary. In M. Reiser & E. Holtmann (Eds.), Farewell to the Party Model?: Independent Local Lists in East and West European Countries (pp. 63–84). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PROSPECTS.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 8). Pollen Genetics Can Help With Forensic Investigations. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP (No. AFMD-83-53). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Akiyama, K. M. (2017). Taste Detection in Post-Laryngectomy Head and Neck Cancer Survivors and Its Effect on Dietary Intake and Malnutrition Status (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, T. C. (2017, March 28). Radical Ambition. New York Times, p. MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herrmann 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Herrmann 2014; Sun and He 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sun and He 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwarz et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePROSPECTS
AbbreviationProspects (Paris)
ISSN (print)0033-1538
ISSN (online)1573-9090

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