How to format your references using the Process Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Process Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Batty, The size, scale, and shape of cities, Science. 319 (2008) 769–771.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.G. Murphy, S.R. Bloom, Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis, Nature. 444 (2006) 854–859.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.C. Sun, J.N. Beilke, L.L. Lanier, Adaptive immune features of natural killer cells, Nature. 457 (2009) 557–561.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.R.J. Gordon, H.B. Choi, R.L. Rungta, G.C.R. Ellis-Davies, B.A. MacVicar, Brain metabolism dictates the polarity of astrocyte control over arterioles, Nature. 456 (2008) 745–749.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.J. DiBerardinis, J.S. Baum, M.W. First, G.T. Gatwood, A.K. Seth, Guidelines for Laboratory Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
J. Wang, G.G. Yen, M.M. Polycarpou, eds., Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2012: 9th International Symposium on Neural Networks, Shenyang, China, July 11-14, 2012. Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Combescure, Semiclassical Results for Ideal Fermion Systems. A Review, in: J. Janas, P. Kurasov, S. Naboko, A. Laptev, G. Stolz (Eds.), Methods of Spectral Analysis in Mathematical Physics: Conference on Operator Theory, Analysis and Mathematical Physics (OTAMP) 2006, Lund, Sweden, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2009: pp. 69–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Process Biochemistry.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Air Umbrella Creates “Force Field” That Keeps You Dry, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Active Commuter Rail Agency Service Contracts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V.L. DiPasquale, A phenomenological study of industry professionals’ perceptions of ethics in the title insurance industry, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Grynbaum, E. Steel, Fox News Fires Another Host, as Tough Headlines Keep the Staff Reeling, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcess Biochemistry
AbbreviationProcess Biochem.
ISSN (print)1359-5113
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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