How to format your references using the Proceedings of the Royal Society A citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings of the Royal Society A. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagenal F. 2007 Planetary science. A new spin on Saturn’s rotation. Science 316, 380–381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grünwald D, Singer RH. 2010 In vivo imaging of labelled endogenous β-actin mRNA during nucleocytoplasmic transport. Nature 467, 604–607.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murthy VR, van Westrenen W, Fei Y. 2003 Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Nature 423, 163–165.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zappacosta DC, Ochogavía AC, Rodrigo JM, Romero JR, Meier MS, Garbus I, Pessino SC, Echenique VC. 2014 Increased apomixis expression concurrent with genetic and epigenetic variation in a newly synthesized Eragrostis curvula polyploid. Sci. Rep. 4, 4423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pohanish RP. 2005 HazMat Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bessis N, Xhafa F, Varvarigou D, Hill R, Li M, editors. 2013 Internet of Things and Inter-cooperative Computational Technologies for Collective Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bruner BD, Soifer H, Negro M, Devetta M, Faccialá D, Vozzi C, Stagira S, de Silvestri S, Dudovich N. 2015 Disentangling Structural and Dynamical Effects via Multidimensional High Harmonic Spectroscopy. In Ultrafast Phenomena XIX: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference, Okinawa Convention Center, Okinawa, Japan, July 7-11, 2014 (eds K Yamanouchi, S Cundiff, R de Vivie-Riedle, M Kuwata-Gonokami, L DiMauro), pp. 20–23. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings of the Royal Society A.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016 Why You Should Stack Copper Coins On Your Laptop. IFLScience. See (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976 Geographical Distribution Of Federal Science Funds To Colleges And Universities.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fuller JB. 2015 The Woodsman’s Son. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. 2017 LCD Soundsystem Tops Album Chart. New York Times, 11 September. , C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings of the Royal Society A
AbbreviationProc. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.
ISSN (print)1364-5021
ISSN (online)1471-2946
ScopeGeneral Engineering
General Mathematics
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles