How to format your references using the Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melançon, C.E., 3rd Biochemistry: Elusive Source of Sulfur Unravelled. Nature 2015, 518, 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trost, B.M.; Dong, G. Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 16 Using Atom-Economical and Chemoselective Approaches. Nature 2008, 456, 485–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoerling, M.P.; Hurrell, J.W.; Xu, T. Tropical Origins for Recent North Atlantic Climate Change. Science 2001, 292, 90–92.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Helmink, B.A.; Tubbs, A.T.; Dorsett, Y.; Bednarski, J.J.; Walker, L.M.; Feng, Z.; Sharma, G.G.; McKinnon, P.J.; Zhang, J.; Bassing, C.H.; et al. H2AX Prevents CtIP-Mediated DNA End Resection and Aberrant Repair in G1-Phase Lymphocytes. Nature 2011, 469, 245–249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sóbester, A.; Forrester, A.I.J. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118534748.
An edited book
Gupta, J.N.D. Intelligent Decision-Making Support Systems: Foundations, Applications and Challenges; Forgionne, G.A., Mora T., M., Eds.; Decision Engineering; Springer: London, 2006; ISBN 9781846282287.
A chapter in an edited book
Custódio, R.F.; Vigil, M.A.G.; Romani, J.; Pereira, F.C.; da Silva Fraga, J. Optimized Certificates – A New Proposal for Efficient Electronic Document Signature Validation. In Public Key Infrastructure: 5th European PKI Workshop: Theory and Practice, EuroPKI 2008 Trondheim, Norway, June 16-17, 2008 Proceedings; Mjølsnes, S.F., Mauw, S., Katsikas, S.K., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 49–59 ISBN 9783540694847.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Cannabis, Cannabinoids and Cancer – The Evidence So Far Available online:–-evidence-so-far/ (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: TSA Is Enhancing Its Oversight of Air Carrier Efforts to Identify Passengers on the No Fly and Selectee Lists, but Expects Ultimate Solution to Be Implementation of Secure Flight; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker, M.C. A Descriptive Study of the View from the Top: Perspectives of Experts in Continuing Medical Education. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. The Dazzle of Neon. New York Times 2013, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings
ISSN (online)2504-3900

Other styles