How to format your references using the Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Machens, C.K. Neuroscience. Building the human brain. Science 2012, 338, 1156–1157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sennett, R.; Rendl, M. Developmental biology. A scar is born: origins of fibrotic skin tissue. Science 2015, 348, 284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waghmare, P.R.; Das, S.; Mitra, S.K. Under-water superoleophobic glass: unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1862.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Solanki, S.K.; Usoskin, I.G.; Kromer, B.; Schüssler, M.; Beer, J. Unusual activity of the Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000 years. Nature 2004, 431, 1084–1087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saliba, A.J.; Corona, J.C.; Johnson, K.E. Option Spread Strategies; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118531631.
An edited book
Around the Tree: Semantic and Metaphysical Issues Concerning Branching and the Open Future; Correia, F., Iacona, A., Eds.; Synthese Library, Studies in Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; Vol. 361; ISBN 9789400751668.
A chapter in an edited book
Marés, J.; Torra, V. On the Protection of Social Network-Extracted Categorical Microdata. In Citizen in Sensor Networks: First International Workshop, CitiSens 2012, Montpellier, France, August 27, 2012, Revised Selected Papers; Nin, J., Villatoro, D., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 33–42 ISBN 9783642360732.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Boxer Crabs Make Their Anemone “Gloves’’” Reproduce Asexually” Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Utilization at Aberdeen Proving Ground’s ADP Installation; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newsome, G.A. Novel instrumentation and method development for a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. Cinéma Spirité: Dinner and Drinks at the Movies. New York Times 2017, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings
ISSN (online)2504-3900

Other styles