How to format your references using the Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kono, M. Geophysics. Ships’ Logs and Archeomagnetism. Science 2006, 312, 865–866.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson, B.E.; McInerney, M.J. Anaerobic Microbial Metabolism Can Proceed Close to Thermodynamic Limits. Nature 2002, 415, 454–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Steinman, B.A.; Mann, M.E.; Miller, S.K. Climate Change. Atlantic and Pacific Multidecadal Oscillations and Northern Hemisphere Temperatures. Science 2015, 347, 988–991.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, F.; Wang, Z.; Dong, W.; Sun, C.; Wang, H.; Song, A.; He, L.; Fang, W.; Chen, F.; Teng, N. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis Reveals Mechanisms of Embryo Abortion during Chrysanthemum Cross Breeding. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6536.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salleh, S.; Zomaya, A.Y.; Olariu, S.; Sanugi, B. Numerical Simulations and Case Studies Using Visual C++.Net; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471727255.
An edited book
Decision Support Systems for Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Sites; Marcomini, A., Suter, G.W., II, Critto, A., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2009; ISBN 9780387097213.
A chapter in an edited book
Lal, A.; Qadeer, S. Reachability Modulo Theories. In Reachability Problems: 7th International Workshop, RP 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, September 24-26, 2013 Proceedings; Abdulla, P.A., Potapov, I., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 23–44 ISBN 9783642410352.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Autistic Kids Low On Vital Social Hormone, Study Suggests Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Infrastructure: Issues for Congressional Consideration During Reauthorization of Surface Transportation Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, S. Searching for Identity and Truth: How Letter Writing Creates Identity in Victorian Literature. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bray, C.; Corkery, M. Citigroup Said to Open Frankfurt Hub in Post-‘Brexit’ Move. New York Times 2017, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings
ISSN (online)2504-3900

Other styles