How to format your references using the Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashley-Ross, M.A. BIOMECHANICS. When It’s Hip to Be Square. Science 2015, 349, 30–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nedeva, M.; Stampfer, M. Science Policy. From “Science in Europe” to “European Science.” Science 2012, 336, 982–983.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldini, J.U.L.; McDermott, F.; Fairchild, I.J. Structure of the 8200-Year Cold Event Revealed by a Speleothem Trace Element Record. Science 2002, 296, 2203–2206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsukuda, T.; Fleming, A.B.; Nickoloff, J.A.; Osley, M.A. Chromatin Remodelling at a DNA Double-Strand Break Site in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Nature 2005, 438, 379–383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aichinger, M.; Binder, A. A Workout in Computational Finance; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781119973515.
An edited book
High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) Vision; Hoefflinger, B., Ed.; ADVANCED MICROELECTRONICS; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 26; ISBN 9783540444329.
A chapter in an edited book
Frantzeskaki, N.; Tefrati, N. A Transformative Vision Unlocks the Innovative Potential of Aberdeen City, UK. In Governance of Urban Sustainability Transitions: European and Asian Experiences; Loorbach, D., Wittmayer, J.M., Shiroyama, H., Fujino, J., Mizuguchi, S., Eds.; Theory and Practice of Urban Sustainability Transitions; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2016; pp. 49–68 ISBN 9784431554257.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Low Education Carries a Similar Mortality Risk to Smoking (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: Better Management of Interdependencies between Programs Supporting 2020 Census Is Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Strong, M. Investigation and Characterization of Features on a Cretaceous-Paleogene Seismic Horizon in Northern Louisiana. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Theater; Jazzy Structure, Defying Genre. New York Times 2016, AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings
ISSN (online)2504-3900

Other styles