How to format your references using the Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Timusk, T. Obituary: Bertram N. Brockhouse (1918-2003). Nature 2003, 426, 617.
A journal article with 2 authors
Titantah, J.T.; Karttunen, M. Water dynamics: relation between hydrogen bond bifurcations, molecular jumps, local density & hydrophobicity. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2991.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones, G.H.; Balogh, A.; Horbury, T.S. Identification of comet Hyakutake’s extremely long ion tail from magnetic field signatures. Nature 2000, 404, 574–576.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ungar, G.; Liu, Y.; Zeng, X.; Percec, V.; Cho, W.-D. Giant supramolecular liquid crystal lattice. Science 2003, 299, 1208–1211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voigtman, E. Limits of Detection in Chemical Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2017; ISBN 9781119189008.
An edited book
New Frontiers in Information and Software as Services: Service and Application Design Challenges in the Cloud; Agrawal, D., Candan, K.S., Li, W.-S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 74; ISBN 9783642192937.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsekouras, G.E.; Tsolakis, D.M. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Vector Quantization for Image Compression. In Computational Intelligence in Image Processing; Chatterjee, A., Siarry, P., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 93–105 ISBN 9783642306204.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Chief of Copenhagen Zoo Speaks Out About Giraffe Controversy Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Major Management Issues Facing DOD’s Development and Fielding Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowley, K.M. Dynamics of Creativity: A Study of Early Drug Discovery Scientists’ Experience of Creativity. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. Drawn From History and Imagination. New York Times 2012, C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings
ISSN (online)2504-3900

Other styles