How to format your references using the Powder Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Powder Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Vogel, Evolution. Protein expression under pressure, Science. 342 (2013) 1052–1053.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.F. Keeling, M. Visbeck, Palaeoceanography. Antarctic stratification and glacial CO2, Nature. 412 (2001) 605–606.
A journal article with 3 authors
V.E. Hamilton, P.R. Christensen, J.L. Bandfield, Planetary science: Volcanism or aqueous alteration on Mars?, Nature. 421 (2003) 711–2; discussion 712-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-R. Chao, E. Parganas, K. Boyd, C.Y. Hong, J.T. Opferman, J.N. Ihle, Hax1-mediated processing of HtrA2 by Parl allows survival of lymphocytes and neurons, Nature. 452 (2008) 98–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Lindahl, Emerging Real Estate Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
F.H.P. Fitzek, M.D. Katz, eds., Cooperation in Wireless Networks: Principles and Applications: Real Egoistic Behavior is to Cooperate!, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Deb, S. Roychoudhury, G. Sarkar, One-Shot Operational Matrices for Integration, in: S. Roychoudhury, G. Sarkar (Eds.), Analysis and Identification of Time-Invariant Systems, Time-Varying Systems, and Multi-Delay Systems Using Orthogonal Hybrid Functions: Theory and Algorithms with MATLAB®, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 115–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Powder Technology.

Blog post
T. Hale, This Robot Is Controlled Through Human Brain Waves, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Index Digest of the Published Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Volumes 66-70, September 1991, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.N. Reid, The Unintended Consequences of Narrowing Secondary Curriculum in Response to Low Standardized Test Scores, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, Crowd Lifts Frenchwoman. Now, Who Will Hoist a First Major Trophy?, New York Times. (2017) D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePowder Technology
AbbreviationPowder Technol.
ISSN (print)0032-5910
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering

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