How to format your references using the Portuguese Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Portuguese Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cho, Adrian, ‘Computer Science. Quantum or Not, Controversial Computer Yields No Speedup’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 344.6190 (2014), 1330–31
A journal article with 2 authors
Tulin, Alexei, and Allan Spradling, ‘Chromatin Loosening by Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila Puff Loci’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 299.5606 (2003), 560–62
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakamaki, Tatsuya, Akio Suzuki, and Eiji Ohtani, ‘Stability of Hydrous Melt at the Base of the Earth’s Upper Mantle’, Nature, 439.7073 (2006), 192–94
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wellen, Kathryn E., Georgia Hatzivassiliou, Uma M. Sachdeva, Thi V. Bui, Justin R. Cross, and Craig B. Thompson, ‘ATP-Citrate Lyase Links Cellular Metabolism to Histone Acetylation’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 324.5930 (2009), 1076–80

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, David, International Valuation Standards (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016)
An edited book
Hu, Wensong, ed., Electronics and Signal Processing: Selected Papers from the 2011 International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2011) in Nanchang, China on June 20–22, 2011, Volume 1, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011), xcvii
A chapter in an edited book
Liqat, Umer, Steve Kerrison, Alejandro Serrano, Kyriakos Georgiou, Pedro Lopez-Garcia, Neville Grech, and others, ‘Energy Consumption Analysis of Programs Based on XMOS ISA-Level Models’, in Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation: 23rd International Symposium, LOPSTR 2013, Madrid, Spain, September 18-19, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, ed. by Gopal Gupta and Ricardo Peña, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014), pp. 72–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Portuguese Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise, ‘First Direct Evidence Of Microbial Life Under 1km Of Antarctic Ice’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014) <> [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Title I Program for the Handicapped (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 4 October 1977)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abedin, Golnar, ‘Exploring the Potential of Art-Based Education for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: A Case Study of Engagement in Learning through the Arts’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John, and Jim Rutenberg, ‘Pelley Said to Be Leaving Anchor Post With CBS News’, New York Times, 30 May 2017, p. B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePortuguese Studies
ISSN (print)0267-5315
ISSN (online)2222-4270
Literature and Literary Theory
Cultural Studies

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