How to format your references using the Portuguese Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Portuguese Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, Caitlin, ‘Genomics: Genotyping Gets up to Speed’, Nature, 435.7044 (2005), 992
A journal article with 2 authors
Kodama, R., and Fast-Ignitor Consortium, ‘Fast Heating Scalable to Laser Fusion Ignition’, Nature, 418.6901 (2002), 933–34
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, Jonathan L. C., Barry J. Everitt, and Kerrie L. Thomas, ‘Independent Cellular Processes for Hippocampal Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 304.5672 (2004), 839–43
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen, I-Wen Peter, Chun-Yuan Huang, Sheng-Hong Saint Jhou, and Yu-Wei Zhang, ‘Exfoliation and Performance Properties of Non-Oxidized Graphene in Water’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 3928

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hill, Richard, and George Solt, Engineering Money (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010)
An edited book
Sassa, Kyoji, Paolo Canuti, and Yueping Yin, eds., Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment: Vol.1: The International Programme on Landslides (IPL) (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila, and Eftekhar Eftekharpour, ‘Stem Cells and Spinal Cord Injury Repair’, in Regenerative Biology of the Spine and Spinal Cord, ed. by Rahul Jandial and Mike Y. Chen, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (New York, NY: Springer, 2012), pp. 53–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Portuguese Studies.

Blog post
Evans, Katy, ‘How Climate May Have Shaped Our Noses’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2017)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Spectrum: Plans and Actions to Meet Future Needs, Including Continued Use of Auctions (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 23 November 2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph, Frantz Bernard, ‘Adsorption and Transformation of Selenium from Elemental Selenium Nanoparticles by Pseudomonas Fuscovaginae’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly, ‘The Best of Brazil’, New York Times, 9 September 2006, p. NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Caitlin Smith, ‘Genomics: Genotyping Gets up to Speed’, Nature, 435.7044 (2005), 992..
This sentence cites two references Caitlin Smith, ‘Genomics: Genotyping Gets up to Speed’, Nature, 435.7044 (2005), 992; R. Kodama and Fast-Ignitor Consortium, ‘Fast Heating Scalable to Laser Fusion Ignition’, Nature, 418.6901 (2002), 933–34..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: I-Wen Peter Chen and others, ‘Exfoliation and Performance Properties of Non-Oxidized Graphene in Water’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 3928.

About the journal

Full journal titlePortuguese Studies
ISSN (print)0267-5315
ISSN (online)2222-4270
Literature and Literary Theory
Cultural Studies

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