How to format your references using the Portuguese Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Portuguese Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakradhar, Shraddha, ‘Colorectal Cancer: 5 Big Questions’, Nature, 521.7551 (2015), S16
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahima, Rexford S., and Mitchell A. Lazar, ‘Physiology. The Health Risk of Obesity--Better Metrics Imperative’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 341.6148 (2013), 856–58
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J., G. J. Hannon, and D. H. Beach, ‘Risky Immortalization by Telomerase’, Nature, 405.6788 (2000), 755–56
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Buskila, Yossi, Paul P. Breen, Jonathan Tapson, André van Schaik, Matthew Barton, and John W. Morley, ‘Extending the Viability of Acute Brain Slices’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 5309

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frikha, Mounir, Ad Hoc Networks (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013)
An edited book
Leal, David L., and Stephen J. Trejo, eds., Latinos and the Economy: Integration and Impact in Schools, Labor Markets, and Beyond, Immigrants and Minorities, Politics and Policy (New York, NY: Springer, 2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Guanghai, Ruhe Xie, and Yongcai Sun, ‘Research and Analyses on Unsteady Heat Transfer of Inner Thermal Insulation Wall during Multi-Temperature Refrigerated Transportation’, in Intelligent Computing and Information Science: International Conference, ICICIS 2011, Chongqing, China, January 8-9, 2011. Proceedings, Part II, ed. by Ran Chen, Communications in Computer and Information Science (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011), pp. 23–29

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Portuguese Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom, ‘Sheep Invade City After Shepherd Falls Asleep’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2016)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP Systems: FDA Can Reduce Development Risks for Its Import Information System (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 30 September 1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilbur, Lara Jean, ‘Perceptions of Missouri Public School Early Childhood Teachers and Administrators in Regard to Technology and Current Practices’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben, ‘Art’s but a Walking Shadow’, New York Times, 20 June 2017, p. C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePortuguese Studies
ISSN (print)0267-5315
ISSN (online)2222-4270
Literature and Literary Theory
Cultural Studies

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