How to format your references using the Portuguese Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Portuguese Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boulton, Geoffrey, ‘Open Your Minds and Share Your Results’, Nature, 486.7404 (2012), 441
A journal article with 2 authors
Shafiq, Ghufran, and Kalyana C. Veluvolu, ‘Surface Chest Motion Decomposition for Cardiovascular Monitoring’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 5093
A journal article with 3 authors
Helbing, D., I. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, ‘Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic’, Nature, 407.6803 (2000), 487–90
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shen, Caiwei, Xiaohong Wang, Wenfeng Zhang, and Feiyu Kang, ‘Direct Prototyping of Patterned Nanoporous Carbon: A Route from Materials to on-Chip Devices’, Scientific Reports, 3 (2013), 2294

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond, Bridgit C., Legal Aspects of Radiography and Radiology (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2008)
An edited book
Tombran-Tink, Joyce, Colin J. Barnstable, and Joseph F. Rizzo, eds., Visual Prosthesis and Ophthalmic Devices: New Hope in Sight, Ophthalmology Research (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2007)
A chapter in an edited book
San Cristóbal, José Ramón, ‘A Multi-Attribute Model for Wind Farm Location Combining Cloud and Utility Theories’, in Assessment and Simulation Tools for Sustainable Energy Systems: Theory and Applications, ed. by Fausto Cavallaro, Green Energy and Technology (London: Springer, 2013), pp. 93–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Portuguese Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise, ‘Exo-Earths And The Search For Life Elsewhere: A Brief History’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014) <> [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, School Dropouts: Survey of Local Programs (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 20 July 1987)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olszewski, Robert M., ‘Donor Motivations for Donating to a Nonprofit Without a Previous Relationship’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary, ‘New York Mulls New Bid’, New York Times, 15 May 2014, p. B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePortuguese Studies
ISSN (print)0267-5315
ISSN (online)2222-4270
Literature and Literary Theory
Cultural Studies

Other styles