How to format your references using the Police Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Police Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashrafian, H. (2015). Intelligent robots must uphold human rights. Nature, 519(7544), 391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dominé, F., & Shepson, P. B. (2002). Air-snow interactions and atmospheric chemistry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5586), 1506–1510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Singh, P. K., Hopwood, J., & Sonkusale, S. (2014). Metamaterials for remote generation of spatially controllable two dimensional array of microplasma. Scientific Reports, 4, 5964.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fu, Z.-G., Zhang, P., Chen, M., Wang, Z., Zheng, F.-W., & Lin, H.-Q. (2014). Anisotropic Fabry-Pérot resonant states confined within nano-steps on the topological insulator surface. Scientific Reports, 4, 5544.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells, J. T. (2017). Corporate Fraud Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cardoso, J., Fromm, H., Nickel, S., Satzger, G., Studer, R., & Weinhardt, C. (Eds.). (2015). Fundamentals of Service Systems (1st ed. 2015). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hillmert, S. (2010). Traditional Inequalities and New Insecurities: Long-Term Trends in the Transition to the Labor Market in Germany. In J. Tremmel (Ed.), A Young Generation Under Pressure?: The Financial Situation and the “Rush Hour” of the Cohorts 1970–1985 in a Generational Comparison (pp. 57–76). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Police Practice and Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, May 26). New Species Of Pliosaur Discovered In Russia. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Space Funding: NASA’s Appropriations and DOD’s Funding Estimates for Space Programs (NSIAD-87-81FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, J. M. (2012). (Un)Working Binaries, (Un)Doing Privilege: Narratives of Teachers Who Make Safe Spaces for LGBTQ Students [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, October 8). For Architect, Making A Calmer Restaurant Was Very Stressful. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ashrafian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ashrafian, 2015; Dominé & Shepson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dominé & Shepson, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Singh et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolice Practice and Research
AbbreviationPolice Pract. Res.
ISSN (print)1561-4263
ISSN (online)1477-271X
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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