How to format your references using the Police Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Police Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perrin, M. D. (2015). Astrophysics: Surprisingly fast motions in a dust disk. Nature, 526(7572), 204–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yao, Z., & Shafer, O. T. (2014). The Drosophila circadian clock is a variably coupled network of multiple peptidergic units. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6178), 1516–1520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, J., Kimble, H. J., & Katori, H. (2008). Quantum state engineering and precision metrology using state-insensitive light traps. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5884), 1734–1738.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Grigg, S. P., Canales, C., Hay, A., & Tsiantis, M. (2005). SERRATE coordinates shoot meristem function and leaf axial patterning in Arabidopsis. Nature, 437(7061), 1022–1026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birinyi, L. (2013). The Master Trader. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cusano, A., Consales, M., Crescitelli, A., & Ricciardi, A. (Eds.). (2015). Lab-on-Fiber Technology (Vol. 56). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lewis, M. E., & Werdelin, L. (2007). Patterns of change in the Plio-Pleistocene carnivorans of eastern Africa. In R. Bobe, Z. Alemseged, & A. K. Behrensmeyer (Eds.), Hominin Environments in the East African Pliocene: An Assessment of the Faunal Evidence (pp. 77–105). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Police Practice and Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 31). Tidal And Rotational Forces Helped Shape The Moon Early In Its History. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). College Textbooks: Enhanced Offerings Appear to Drive Recent Price Increases (No. GAO-05-806). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shen, H. (2009). Organization -employee relationships model: A two -sided story (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M. (2017, May 27). Rebuked Twice by Supreme Court, North Carolina Republicans Are Unfazed. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perrin, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Perrin, 2015; Yao & Shafer, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yao & Shafer, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ye, Kimble, & Katori, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Grigg, Canales, Hay, & Tsiantis, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolice Practice and Research
AbbreviationPolice Pract. Res.
ISSN (print)1561-4263
ISSN (online)1477-271X
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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