How to format your references using the Police Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Police Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snow, C. E. (2010). Academic language and the challenge of reading for learning about science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5977), 450–452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldfine, H., & Vance, D. E. (2001). Obituary: Konrad E. Bloch (1912-2000). Nature, 409(6822), 779.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zwieniecki, M. A., Melcher, P. J., & Michele Holbrook, N. M. (2001). Hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic resistance in plants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5506), 1059–1062.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Corder, R., Mullen, W., Khan, N. Q., Marks, S. C., Wood, E. G., Carrier, M. J., & Crozier, A. (2006). Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health. Nature, 444(7119), 566.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins, R. D. (2015). Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sampaolesi, R. (2014). The Glaucomas: Volume II - Open Angle Glaucoma and Angle Closure Glaucoma (J. R. Sampaolesi & J. Zárate, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gómez, A., & Lunt, D. H. (2007). Refugia within Refugia: Patterns of Phylogeographic Concordance in the Iberian Peninsula. In S. Weiss & N. Ferrand (Eds.), Phylogeography of Southern European Refugia: Evolutionary perspectives on the origins and conservation of European biodiversity (pp. 155–188). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Police Practice and Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 29). Amazing Photograph Shows Birth and Death of Star. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Employment Security Operations--The Impact of a Computerized Job Bank in Baltimore, Maryland (B-133182). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ficchi, G. (2017). A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play? [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009, April 19). Jones Beach Hit Hard By Budget Cuts to Parks. New York Times, LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Snow, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Goldfine & Vance, 2001; Snow, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldfine & Vance, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Zwieniecki et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Corder et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolice Practice and Research
AbbreviationPolice Pract. Res.
ISSN (print)1561-4263
ISSN (online)1477-271X
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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