How to format your references using the Police Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Police Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrope, M. (2000). Climatology. Trouble in the greenhouse. Nature, 407(6800), 10–12.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goedert, M., & Spillantini, M. G. (2006). A century of Alzheimer’s disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5800), 777–781.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clark, D. A., Mitra, P. P., & Wang, S. S. (2001). Scalable architecture in mammalian brains. Nature, 411(6834), 189–193.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Castets, M., Broutier, L., Molin, Y., Brevet, M., Chazot, G., Gadot, N., Paquet, A., Mazelin, L., Jarrosson-Wuilleme, L., Scoazec, J.-Y., Bernet, A., & Mehlen, P. (2011). DCC constrains tumour progression via its dependence receptor activity. Nature, 482(7386), 534–537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cazdyn, E., & Szeman, I. (2011). After Globalization. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Borisyuk, A. (2005). Tutorials in Mathematical Biosciences I: Mathematical Neuroscience (A. Friedman, B. Ermentrout, & D. Terman, Eds.; Vol. 1860). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaufman, J. J., Luo, G., & Siffert, R. S. (2012). 3D Simulation of Ultrasound in the Ultra-Distal Human Radius. In A. Nowicki, J. Litniewski, & T. Kujawska (Eds.), Acoustical Imaging: Volume 31 (pp. 39–43). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Police Practice and Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, November 16). Sea Sponges Show The Way To Cancer Treatment With Fewer Side-Effects. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Federal Research: Information on the Advanced Technology Program’s Award Selection (RCED-99-258R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna, A. C. (2009). Analysis of the California Mental Health Services Act [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chauncey, G. (2013, June 26). The Long Road to Marriage Equality. New York Times, A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schrope, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Goedert & Spillantini, 2006; Schrope, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goedert & Spillantini, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Clark et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Castets et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolice Practice and Research
AbbreviationPolice Pract. Res.
ISSN (print)1561-4263
ISSN (online)1477-271X
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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