How to format your references using the Plasma Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasma Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graham-Rowe D 2011 Biodiversity: Endangered and in demand Nature 480 S101-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller J and Müller C W 2014 Structural biology: Enzyme-chromatin complex visualized Nature 514 572–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Aravind L, Dixit V M and Koonin E V 2001 Apoptotic molecular machinery: vastly increased complexity in vertebrates revealed by genome comparisons Science 291 1279–84
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Brawand D, Soumillon M, Necsulea A, Julien P, Csárdi G, Harrigan P, Weier M, Liechti A, Aximu-Petri A, Kircher M, Albert F W, Zeller U, Khaitovich P, Grützner F, Bergmann S, Nielsen R, Pääbo S and Kaessmann H 2011 The evolution of gene expression levels in mammalian organs Nature 478 343–8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Del Pico W J 2014 Electrical Estimating Methods (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Ramina R 2008 Samii’s Essentials in Neurosurgery ed M Tatagiba (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Pyka A and Saviotti P P 2011 Economic Growth Through the Emergence of New Sectors Sectors Matter!: Exploring Mesoeconomics ed S Mann (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 55–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasma Science and Technology.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016 Have We Detected A Hint Of A New Force Of Nature? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1985 Status of Farmers Home Administration Efforts To Install Office Automation (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schloesser K 2010 Improving services for persons with developmental disabilities through the utilization of person-centered thinking: A grant-writing project Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2000 What Rhymes With Asbestos? An Urban Musical in Three Acts New York Times 148

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasma Science and Technology
AbbreviationPlasma Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)1009-0630
ScopeCondensed Matter Physics

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