How to format your references using the Plasma Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasma Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Draaisma D 2001 The tracks of thought Nature 414 153
A journal article with 2 authors
Fu H and Cohen R E 2000 Polarization rotation mechanism for ultrahigh electromechanical response in single-crystal piezoelectrics Nature 403 281–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Magnuson J J, Safina C and Sissenwine M P 2001 Ecology and conservation. Whose fish are they anyway? Science 293 1267–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Sha Z D, Wan Q, Pei Q X, Quek S S, Liu Z S, Zhang Y W and Shenoy V B 2014 On the failure load and mechanism of polycrystalline graphene by nanoindentation Sci. Rep. 4 7437

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Chartered Institute of Building 2008 Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing)
An edited book
Fox J 2016 Sustainable Electricity: Case Studies from Electric Power Companies in North America (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Vasileva-Stojanovska T and Trajkovik V 2014 Modeling a Quality of Experience Aware Distance Educational System ICT Innovations 2013: ICT Innovations and Education Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing ed V Trajkovik and M Anastas (Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing) pp 45–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasma Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Child Camping At Yosemite National Park Contracts Plague IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1985 Second-Year Implementation of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act in the Department of Education (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spencer K H 2008 Exploring the impact of problem -focused case writing pedagogy on novice teachers’ beliefs and practices concerning effective instructional intervention for young children and families Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B 2017 The ‘Coolest Man’ Heads to the Library New York Times C21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasma Science and Technology
AbbreviationPlasma Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)1009-0630
ScopeCondensed Matter Physics

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