How to format your references using the Plant Systematics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Systematics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2009) Salaries in the balance. Nature 457:750–751
A journal article with 2 authors
Baumiller TK, Gahn FJ (2004) Testing predator-driven evolution with Paleozoic crinoid arm regeneration. Science 305:1453–1455
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmer J, Nam Y, Rapoport TA (2008) Structure of a complex of the ATPase SecA and the protein-translocation channel. Nature 455:936–943
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hirsch C, Gauss R, Horn SC, et al (2009) The ubiquitylation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum. Nature 458:453–460

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldkamp FL, Whalen RC (2014) Financial Stability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pan J-S, Chen S-M, Nguyen NT (eds) (2010) Computational Collective Intelligence. Technologies and Applications: Second International Conference, ICCCI 2010, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, November 10-12, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Murthy DN, Baik J, Wilson R, Bulmer M (2006) Two-Dimensional Failure Modeling. In: Pham H (ed) Springer Handbook of Engineering Statistics. Springer, London, pp 97–111

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Systematics and Evolution.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Should We Still Be Choosing Fat-Free Over Full-Fat Products? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) High Speed Ground Transportation: Financing Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey CN (2015) The influence of gardens on resilience in older adults living in a continuing care community. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2017) Tiny School Outgains the Ivies. Here’s How. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Baumiller and Gahn 2004; Smaglik 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baumiller and Gahn 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Hirsch et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Systematics and Evolution
AbbreviationOsterr. Bot. Z.
ISSN (print)0378-2697
ISSN (online)2199-6881
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles