How to format your references using the Plant Systematics and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Systematics and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young RF 3rd (2008) Molecular biology. Secret weapon. Science 321:922–923
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhosale SV, Bhosale SV (2013) Yoctowells as a simple model system for the encapsulation and controlled release of bioactive molecules. Sci Rep 3:1982
A journal article with 3 authors
Miake J, Marbán E, Nuss HB (2002) Biological pacemaker created by gene transfer. Nature 419:132–133
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Beltran-Garcia MJ, White JF Jr, Prado FM, et al (2014) Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria. Sci Rep 4:6938

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sue DW (2003) Overcoming Our Racism. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wachsmuth I, Knoblich G (eds) (2008) Modeling Communication with Robots and Virtual Humans: Second ZiF Research Group International Workshop on Embodied Communication in Humans and Machines, Bielefeld, Germany, April 5-8, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Yazdanpanah AP, Faez K (2009) Normalizing Human Ear in Proportion to Size and Rotation. In: Huang D-S, Jo K-H, Lee H-H, et al. (eds) Emerging Intelligent Computing Technology and Applications: 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2009, Ulsan, South Korea, September 16-19, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Systematics and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) US Google Searches For “Climate Change” And “Paris Agreement” Spiked Only This Month. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Engineering Research Centers: NSF Program Management and Industry Sponsorship. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dylla AG (2009) Synthesis, characterization and catalytic studies of bimetallic nanoparticles. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) Film Series. New York Times C20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Young 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Young 2008; Bhosale and Bhosale 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bhosale and Bhosale 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Beltran-Garcia et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Systematics and Evolution
AbbreviationOsterr. Bot. Z.
ISSN (print)0378-2697
ISSN (online)2199-6881
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles