How to format your references using the Plant Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrini-Mundy, J. 2013. Science education. Driven by diversity. Science. 340:278.
A journal article with 2 authors
Young, I. M., and Crawford, J. W. 2004. Interactions and self-organization in the soil-microbe complex. Science. 304:1634–1637.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khanna, K. M., McNamara, J. T., and Lefrançois, L. 2007. In situ imaging of the endogenous CD8 T cell response to infection. Science. 318:116–120.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Collin, D., Ritort, F., Jarzynski, C., Smith, S. B., Tinoco, I., Jr, and Bustamante, C. 2005. Verification of the Crooks fluctuation theorem and recovery of RNA folding free energies. Nature. 437:231–234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthold, H. J., and Binnewies, M. 2005. Chemisches Grundpraktikum. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Matera, M., and Rossi, G., eds. 2013. Trends in Mobile Web Information Systems: MobiWIS 2013 International Workshops, Paphos, Cyprus, August 26-28, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Amador, F., and Padrel Oliveira, C. 2013. Integrating Sustainability into the University: Past, Present, and Future. In Sustainability Assessment Tools in Higher Education Institutions: Mapping Trends and Good Practices Around the World, eds. Sandra Caeiro, Walter Leal Filho, Charbel Jabbour, and Ulisses M. Azeiteiro. Cham: Springer International Publishing, p. 65–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Heat-Seeking “Grenades” Attack Cancer Cells. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Compensatory Education: Chapter 1 Participants Generally Meet Selection Criteria. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bornmann, J. W. 2009. Becoming soldiers: Army Basic Training and the negotiation of identity.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. 2000. Op-art; Sub-liminal. New York Times. :A33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferrini-Mundy 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ferrini-Mundy 2013; Young and Crawford 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Young and Crawford 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Collin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Disease
AbbreviationPlant Dis.
ISSN (print)0191-2917
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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