How to format your references using the Plant Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Driehuys, B. 2006. Chemistry. Toward molecular imaging with xenon MRI. Science. 314:432–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jupp, T., and Schultz, A. 2000. A thermodynamic explanation for black smoker temperatures. Nature. 403:880–883.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sessa, P., Meconi, F., and Han, S. 2014. Double dissociation of neural responses supporting perceptual and cognitive components of social cognition: evidence from processing of others’ pain. Sci. Rep. 4:7424.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ford, M. G. J., Mills, I. G., Peter, B. J., Vallis, Y., Praefcke, G. J. K., Evans, P. R., et al. 2002. Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin. Nature. 419:361–366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rapaport, H. 2011. The Literary Theory Toolkit. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Simmons, K. M. 2011. Economic and Societal Impacts of Tornadoes. ed. Daniel Sutter. Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society.
A chapter in an edited book
Church, J. M. 2015. Norms, Rules and Sustainable Planning: Who Said What About Norms. In Transitions to Sustainability, eds. François Mancebo and Ignacy Sachs. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, p. 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016. 22 Ways To Cut Your Energy Bills (Before Spending On Solar Panels). IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Integration of Current Implementation Efforts with Long-term Planning for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, E. A. 2008. Factors associated with post-stroke depressive symptoms and quality of life.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2003. Moscow Music Festival Marks Russian Easter. New York Times. :53.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Driehuys 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Driehuys 2006; Jupp and Schultz 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jupp and Schultz 2000)
  • Three authors: (Sessa, Meconi, and Han 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ford et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Disease
AbbreviationPlant Dis.
ISSN (print)0191-2917
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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