How to format your references using the Plant Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, D. M. 2007. Neuroscience. Synapses here and not everywhere. Science. 317:907–908.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ben-Jacob, E., and Levine, H. 2001. The artistry of nature. Nature. 409:985–986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Campbell, C., Shea, K., and Albert, R. 2014. Network models. Comment on “Control profiles of complex networks.” Science. 346:561.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Knowles, T. P. J., Waudby, C. A., Devlin, G. L., Cohen, S. I. A., Aguzzi, A., Vendruscolo, M., et al. 2009. An analytical solution to the kinetics of breakable filament assembly. Science. 326:1533–1537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong, A. C. M., and Hui, S. C. 2006. Multimedia Engineering. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Linkov, I., Wenning, R. J., and Kiker, G. A., eds. 2007. Managing Critical Infrastructure Risks: Decision Tools and Applications for Port Security. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Frise, C. J., MacCallum, P. K., Mackillop, L. H., and Nelson-Piercy, C. 2015. Systemic Thromboembolism in Pregnancy: Thromboprophylaxis. In Disorders of Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Pregnancy: A Guide to Management, eds. Hannah Cohen and Patrick O’Brien. Cham: Springer International Publishing, p. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Disease.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014. Ancient Campfire Conversations Strengthened Human Culture. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. School Meal Programs: Estimated Costs for Three Administrative Processes at Selected Locations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ren, W. 2013. The Portrayal of Risk-taking Behaviors in Traffic on the Prime-time Television Series.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. 2017. How ‘Great Comet’ Burned Out. New York Times. :C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Miller 2007; Ben-Jacob and Levine 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ben-Jacob and Levine 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Knowles et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Disease
AbbreviationPlant Dis.
ISSN (print)0191-2917
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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