How to format your references using the Plant Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward, C. D. 2000. Bordeaux mixture. Nature. 404:337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mathews, J. A., and Tan, H. 2014. Economics: Manufacture renewables to build energy security. Nature. 513:166–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samet, J. M., DeMarini, D. M., and Malling, H. V. 2004. Biomedicine. Do airborne particles induce heritable mutations? Science. 304:971–972.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
de Soto, N. A., Delorme, N., Atkins, J., Howard, S., Williams, J., and Johnson, M. 2013. Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae. Sci. Rep. 3:2831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik, B., and Roy, D. M. 2005. Service Design for Six Sigma. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kraemer, F. A., and Herrmann, P., eds. 2011. System Analysis and Modeling: About Models: 6th International Workshop, SAM 2010, Oslo, Norway, October 4-5, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Paireekreng, W., Wong, K. W., and Fung, C. C. 2010. Cluster Analysis for Personalised Mobile Entertainment Content. In Cultural Computing: Second IFIP TC 14 Entertainment Computing Symposium, ECS 2010, Held as Part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, eds. Ryohei Nakatsu, Naoko Tosa, Fazel Naghdy, Kok Wai Wong, and Philippe Codognet. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Flatworm Reproduces by Using its Penis to Inject Sperm Into its Head. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Highway Trust Fund Expenditures on Purposes Other than Construction and Maintenance of Highways and Bridges during Fiscal Years 2004-2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martin, L. K. 2016. Norway leads the world in gender equality and work-life balance: A qualitative life course study of Norwegian women.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Currie, A., Dixon, H., and Hay, G. 2010. Auto Sales Defy The Statistics. New York Times. :B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ward 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ward 2000; Mathews and Tan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mathews and Tan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (de Soto et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Disease
AbbreviationPlant Dis.
ISSN (print)0191-2917
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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