How to format your references using the Plant Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roch, S. 2010. Toward extracting all phylogenetic information from matrices of evolutionary distances. Science. 327:1376–1379.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazzaro, B. P., and Rolff, J. 2011. Immunology. Danger, microbes, and homeostasis. Science. 332:43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ortega, F., Escaso, F., and Sanz, J. L. 2010. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the lower cretaceous of Spain. Nature. 467:203–206.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gill, J. A., Norris, K., Potts, P. M., Gunnarsson, T. G., Atkinson, P. W., and Sutherland, W. J. 2001. The buffer effect and large-scale population regulation in migratory birds. Nature. 412:436–438.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolson, R. F., and Clarke, W. R. 2002. Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Biomedical Data: Woolson/Statistical. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Goldstein, D. J., ed. 2005. The Management of Eating Disorders and Obesity. Second Edition. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaturvedi, A., Mishra, D., and Mukhopadhyay, S. 2013. Improved Biometric-Based Three-factor Remote User Authentication Scheme with Key Agreement Using Smart Card. In Information Systems Security: 9th International Conference, ICISS 2013, Kolkata, India, December 16-20, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. Aditya Bagchi and Indrakshi Ray. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 63–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Why Are Cacti So Juicy? The Secret Strategy Of Succulents. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Implementation of Section 1903(g) of the Social Security Act by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leak, S. C. 2010. Building community capacity to meet the needs of our aging society: Interdisciplinary competency development for professionals.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman, R., and Walsh, M. W. 2013. Struggling, San Jose Tests a Way to Cut Benefits. New York Times. :A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roch 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Roch 2010; Lazzaro and Rolff 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazzaro and Rolff 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gill et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Disease
AbbreviationPlant Dis.
ISSN (print)0191-2917
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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