How to format your references using the Plant Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wara, M. 2007. Is the global carbon market working? Nature. 445:595–596.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roska, B., and Werblin, F. 2001. Vertical interactions across ten parallel, stacked representations in the mammalian retina. Nature. 410:583–587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Messenger, S., Keller, L. P., and Lauretta, D. S. 2005. Supernova olivine from cometary dust. Science. 309:737–741.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fichot, C. G., Kaiser, K., Hooker, S. B., Amon, R. M. W., Babin, M., Bélanger, S., et al. 2013. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean. Sci. Rep. 3:1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schweiker, W. 2010. Dust that Breathes. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Ehrenfreund, P., Irvine, W., Owen, T., Becker, L., Blank, J., Brucato, J., et al., eds. 2005. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Rigamonti, G. 2011. Bertrand Russell. In Mathematical Lives: Protagonists of the Twentieth Century From Hilbert to Wiles, eds. Claudio Bartocci, Renato Betti, Angelo Guerraggio, and Roberto Lucchetti. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. After 400 Years, Mathematicians Find A New Class Of Solid Shapes. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. ADP Budget: Department of the Army’s Information Technology Systems Obligations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garapati, S. H. 2013. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Assembly Procedures of Steel Fulcra of Bascule Bridges.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 2014. U.S.T.A. Faces Suit Over Sabbath Schedule. New York Times. :D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wara 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Wara 2007; Roska and Werblin 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roska and Werblin 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Fichot et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Disease
AbbreviationPlant Dis.
ISSN (print)0191-2917
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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